Outbound logistics channels are of crucial importance for an efficient construction materials logistics management and impacts on customer satisfaction. However, there is limited knowledge of the outbound logistics channels for construction material in Nigeria. This study aims to identify and examine the current outbound logistics channels used by the Nigerian construction material manufacturing industries. A quantitative research method using a case study approach was adopted in this research. The purposive sampling technique was chosen, where six construction material manufactured and distributed within five states capital and Abuja in the North-central region of Nigeria were selected for this study. A research instrument was developed and used in conjunction with an observation protocol in the form of a template. The data were collected through observations, direct measurement onsite and archival records of transactions. A descriptive method of data analysis was employed to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that there exist six alternative outbound logistics channels that can be used separately or in combination with each other to deliver materials to end users. The study concludes that the research finding provides a potential knowledge and understanding of the manufacturers’ outbound logistics channels that can be used at the start of a project to accomplish effective planning and delivery of the whole project. The study also established the average transportation cost per average ton and average transportation cost per average distance driven for construction material delivery. This information can be used for construction material transportation management.
The purpose of this article is to assess the investment activity (investing activities) of companies in Poland depending on the industry they belong to. The first part of the study presents theoretical issues concerning business investments. The second part presents a comparative study of the investment activity of Polish companies operating in various industries. In this study, in order to assess the investment activity of companies in Poland based on the industry they belong to, two selected methods of linear ordering (the method of sums and Hellwig’s method) were used, both falling within the scope of a multidimensional comparative analysis. In the analyzed period, the majority of examined industries showed high fluctuations in their investment activity, which is likely due to the uncertainty faced by Polish companies. Industries showing the highest level of investment activity in 2010-2016 in both methods are: industrial sector, administration and support activities, transportation and warehousing, real estate services. Industries showing the lowest level of investment activity are: education, trade and repair of motor vehicles.
Releases of Dangerous Chemicals in Poland in 2005 in the Context of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) System Developed in the US
Objectives: To present a dataset concerning acute releases of hazardous chemicals in Poland in 2005 in the context of the HSEES system implemented in Poland.
Material and Methods: ATSDR, as the coordinator of the HSEES system, determined the kind and scope of data to be collected. In Poland, the fire department's reports were the main source of information on chemical emergencies.
Results: In 2005, as many as 245 incidents of chemical release and 23 of threatened release were recorded. Most of acute chemical incidents were associated with transportation and warehousing (106; 39.6%); in this truck transportation accounted for almost 50%, and the chemical and food sector for a little more than 50% of the total incidents. Human error and equipment failure were the primary causal factors, contributing respectively to 147 (54.9%) and 103 (38.4%) incidents. The chemicals involved most frequently were mercury (21.4%), propane-butane mixture (9.7%), ammonia (7.1%), hydrochloric acid, natural gas, sulfuric acid (5.2-5.6%) and nitric acid (5.2%). Out of 268 emergencies, 43 (16.0%) involved casualties: 191 in total, including 180 (94.2%) in the fixed facility incidents and 11 (5.8%) in the transportation-related incidents. The largest group of casualties were students (97) followed by employees (62). The most common injury related to chemical emergency was respiratory irritation (142; 74.3%).
Conclusions: The database on acute chemical emergencies in Poland, based on the HSEES system, makes it possible to generate a variety of statistical analyses that are helpful in planning effective prevention activities to diminish the harmful effects of such incidents.
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