Federica Pirrone, Ludovica Pierantoni, Valerio Albizzati and Mariangela Albertini
Many studies have analyzed the behavior of puppies during their socialization period, while little attention has been paid to the transitional period, when vision and hearing develop. Here, we compared the average age of sensory and motor development, and the behavior among a total of 25 puppies. Each litter was videotaped during 1-hour daily sessions on postnatal days 10-21 and coded for the following mutually exclusive behavioral categories: sleeping, suckling and moving. The moving category included side-to-side head swinging, exploring, rolling and allogrooming. The opening of the eyelids, appearance of the startle response and ability to stand up with either the front or hind legs were identified. The duration and frequency of puppy behaviors varied significantly with breed and season of birth. Breed and gender differences in gross motor and sensory development were also observed. These findings may turn out to be crucial to enhance the welfare, standards of rearing, and behavioral interventions aimed at improving adaptability to novel stimuli in pet dogs.
The paper explores and analyses processes of electoral reforms in selected Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in post-transitional period. The qualitative analysis focuses “only” on the enacted changes in electoral systems and its purpose is not to evaluate the impact and political consequences of individual changes but rather to concentrate, through a theoretically-informed detailed contextual analysis, on the electoral reform process itself. It is therefore concerned with contextual factors affecting, underlying, initiating and/or controlling these changes. The paper identifies political elites as the main actors of electoral reform processes in selected countries, and it tries to explain both motivations of political elites for changing status quo electoral systems and other circumstances of electoral reform processes in Central Europe as well. The analysis also suggests that processes of electoral reform in post-transitional period in Central Europe are characterized by a tendency to less proportional electoral system designs, with the only exception of the Slovak electoral reform of 1999 (due to specific political constellation), while it did not discover any clear tendency regarding personalization of electoral systems.
Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
The most critical period for a dairy cow is called the transitionperiod and lasts 21 days before and 21 after parturition. During the transitionperiod, dairy cows adapt to numerous hormonal and metabolic changes related to the end of pregnancy and the beginning of lactation ( 7 , 14 ). Approximately 50% of cows suffer from various metabolic, nutritional, and infectious disorders ( 23 , 27 ).
Cows may experience reduced dry matter intake during the close-up period, which generally results in negative energy balance. A pre- or post
After the end of the transition period for the purchase of the agricultural land by foreigners, the legislation regulating the acquisition of the agricultural land was adopted for the purpose of harmonization of the Slovak legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The Law no. 140/2014 Coll. on the acquisition of ownership to the agricultural land and amending and supplementing determines the subjects that are legitimated to acquire the ownership to the agricultural land. In addition, due to the creation of the Register of Offers of the Agricultural Land, the legislation allows the landowner to set a price on the sale of the agricultural land. In Slovakia, apart from the administrative prices and the market prices, there is a new type of prices, so-called „supply price“. The aim of the paper is to sum up the impact of the current legislation on the land market and the prices of agricultural land.
We analyze empirically whether IMF financial assistance in 31 transition countries, during the transition and the post-transition period, has achieved the purposes stated in the IMF's own articles of agreement, namely employment enhancement, confidence provision and export promotion. By employing panel data and impact evaluation analysis, we find that IMF presence persistently fails to be correlated with upgrades in sovereign rating, FDI attraction and employment improvement. By focusing on specific IMF policies, we present some intriguing results, which reveal whether these individual policies actually contribute to the achievement of the official IMF purposes or not.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of 2 levels of crude protein (CP) content in the diet during transition period on lactation performance, colostrum quality and serum immunoglobulin concentration of dairy cows and their newborn calves. Thirty dry Holstein cows (607±75 kg) were blocked according to their parity and expected calving date, and then randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments of 15 cows in completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments were: 1) moderate CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 11.9%; postpartum: 14%); and 2) higher CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 14.2%; postpartum: 16.8%). Furthermore, milk samples were collected on two days (15 and 30) postpartum for milk composition analysis. At the same time, milk yield also was recorded. After parturition calves were fed mother’s colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected during the first milking postpartum. Blood samples of cows were taken on days 21 and 2 before projected calving date and on days 15 and 30 after parturition. Blood samples of calves were collected at 72 h postcalving and then on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth. Applied treatment had no effect on average milk production on days 15 and 30 postpartum. Colostrum density was lower in cows fed higher CP level in transition diet than in those fed the diet with moderate CP content (P<0.05). However, the chemical composition of colostrum was not affected by CP level. Serum IgG concentration was higher for calves from higher CP group than for those from moderate CP level group at 21 days of age (P<0.05). In conclusion, the increased protein level during periparturient period tended to improve immune status of calves.
Currently, the native residents of a country are an important social phenomenon. Although extensive mobility challenges the bonds between places and their inhabitants, biographies of native residents are less often based in several spatial contexts because they are born and raised in a specific place and live there for their entire lives. This absence of residential mobility has important consequences for the ways native residents relate to their ‘home places’ and how they build local attachments. Using data from the Czech Republic, the main objective of this paper is to explore and analyse recent developments in the structure of native residents. The objects of analysis are the municipalities of the Czech Republic, and aggregate census data are used for the purpose of analysis. Spatial and non-spatial approaches to the analysis showed significant changes in the structure of native residents, revealing statistically significant spatial patterns. In general, the residents of Czech municipalities demonstrate levels of co-residence or ‘mixing’ in a significant way in recent years. Thus, further research into matters such as spatial belonging, attachment and identity should also take into account the influence of mobility.
This material refers to one of the many transition periods from the History of Art on the territory of Romania - that is the period which separates Paleolithic from Neolithic: Epi-Paleolithic, with its endcalled (and accepted, first of all!) by some researchers: Mesolithic. As we will see, we will refer to the art of this moment of great complexity and diversity. From an artistic pointof view, Epi-Paleolithic already has tools which can be placed in the category of technical beauty, as far as form is concerned, precision becomes more and more important,and also the skillfulness of their production and the delicate, refined finishing; also connected to the artistic side of the period, the interest for beauty for creating geometrical-abstract decorations increases, obviously becoming a coherent ornamental motif. In the final phase of Epi-Paleolithic, the Mesolithic period comes with an art which is different from the one of the culture Schela Cladovei, characterized by ornaments with simple geometrical motifs, liniar incisions, oblique or in a network, this geometry leading to the main compositional textures of decoration of the oldest phase of the future Neolithic culture Criș.
Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Talukder, Moinul Hasan, Tasmia Akter Rosy, Farida Yeasmin Bari and Nasrin Sultana Juyena
Introduction: The ovarian follicular dynamics, vaginal electrical resistance (VER), progesterone (P4) and oestrogen (E2) profiles were investigated during the oestrous cycle in four indigenous ewes.
Material and Methods: Daily VER values were recorded with a heat detector. The follicles were observed and measured by trans-rectal ultrasonography. Blood was collected daily for hormonal profiles.
Results: A significant variation in VER values (P < 0.05) in oestrus by ewes and position in the sequence of cycles was observed. Trans-rectal ultrasonography of ovaries revealed the presence of 2–4 waves of follicular growth. Study of hormonal profiles by ELISA revealed a positive correlation between E2 concentration and development of follicles and a negative correlation between P4 concentration and their development. The concentrations of oestradiol increased in oestrus and then decreased to a basal level. Follicular growth was accompanied by a rise in the concentration of serum oestradiol. Inversely, when follicles received the stimulation for ovulation, concentration of progesterone started to fall, but after ovulation, it climbed back to its peak and remained at this state until next ovulatory follicle reached its maximum diameter.
Conclusion: This study could help to set up a manipulative reproductive technique for improving genetic values in indigenous sheep.
Hatice Esra Colakoglu, Murat Onur Yazlik, Ufuk Kaya, Ekrem Cagatay Colakoglu, Serdal Kurt, Burcu Oz, Rustem Bayramoglu, Mehmet Rifat Vural and Sukru Kuplulu
1. Abd Ellah M.R.: Oxidant and antioxidants during the transitionperiod in dairy cows. J Adv Vet Res 2016, 6, 130–133.
2. Aitken S.L., Karcher E.L., Rezamand P., Gandy J.C., VandeHaar M.J., Capuco A.V., Sordillo L.M.: Evaluation of antioxidant and proinflammatory gene expression in bovine mammary tissue during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci 2009, 92, 589–598.
3. Alila-Johansson A., Eriksson L., Soveri T., Laakso M.L.: Serum cortisol levels in goats exhibit seasonal but not daily rhythmicity. Chronobiol Int 2003, 20, 65