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Image: Fresh whole blood remains a mainstay of treatment for haemophilia in Nigeria, although the country’s blood transfusion service is underdeveloped and donor screening is limited © Shutterstock Haemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disorder characterised by deficiency of FVIII and recurrent bleeding episodes, which may occur spontaneously (in severe haemophilia: FVIII <1%) or be provoked by trauma (in non-severe haemophilia: FVIII>1%) [ 1 ]. Haemarthrosis and arthropathy are common clinical features due to the role of synovial cells and chondrocytes as

1 Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious problems that endanger human health. More than one-third of the population in the world were once infected with HBV, with >360 million translated into chronic infection [ 1 ]. Every year, approximately 62 million people die of fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer caused by HBV infection. A total of 4.5 million new infections have also been documented, with one-quarter developing into liver disease [ 2 ]. Blood transfusion is an important route of transmission for HBV infection

References 1. Boyle A.G., Magdesian G.K., Ruby R.E.: Neonatal isoerythrolysis in horse foals and a mule foal: 18 cases (19882003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005, 227, 1276-1283. 2. Hauser B., Wehrend A., Bostedt H., Failing K.: Investigations about the diagnostic value of venous blood gas parameters in newborn foals with respiratory disorders. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2001, 114, 197-201. 3. Hurcombe S.D., Mudge M.C., Hinchcliff K.W.: Clinical and clinicopathologic variables in adult horses receiving blood transfusions: 31 cases (1999-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc

Introduction An essential measure of any basic health care system is to have an access to the adequate and safe facilities for blood transfusion services, which remain often life savers on the road to critically ill patients. For the development of every healthcare system, the important factor to be considered is a safe and enough supply of the blood. On the other hand, blood transfusion is also intrinsically accompanied by the risks that vary in severity, from negligible to life frightening occasions [ 1 ]. Today, even in developed nations, the greatest hazard

patients with preserved oxygen extraction capability did not show low skeletal StO 2 and THb index despite their severe anaemia, which is what would be predicted from normal physiological responses. 12 It is known that there are structural and functional changes to RBCs during storage. Recent study detected deleterious effects of RBC storage on microvascular responses to transfusion in stable anaemic trauma patients. 13 The aim of the present study was to re-challenge the current data that anaemia in chronically anaemic haematology patients is not associated with low

References 1. WHO: Blood Transfusion Safety. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/en/ 2. Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 setting standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of human blood and blood components and amending Directive 2001/83/EC. [Official Journal of European Union, L33 of 08/02/2003] 3. Commission Directive 2005/62/EC of 30 September 2005 implementing Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards Community standards

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is one of the important complications in twin pregnancy, especially in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twins. TTTS occurs in 10%–15% of twin pregnancy [ 1 ]. It is characterized by unbalanced placental blood flow between two fetuses within a shared placental circulation causing hypervolemia in recipient twin. This results in a release of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) and fetal polyuria, eventually leading to polyhydramnios in the recipient’s sac. Clinical presentation of TTTS can be varied from

Thalassemia is the most common hematologic disease in Thailand [ 1 , 2 ]. Treatment of thalassemia, which including regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy have improved quality of life of these patients and increased their longevity. However, regular blood transfusion may lead to iron deposition in various organs, causing their dysfunction and failure [ 3 , 4 ]. Hypogonadism and delayed puberty are the most common endocrine complications. These result from iron deposition in the pituitary gland, testicular tissue, or both. Prevalence is 40

References 1. Astin R, Puthucheary Z. Anaemia secondary to critical illness: an unexplained phenomenon. Extrem Physiol Med. 2014;3:4. 2. Thomas J, Jensen L, Nahirniak S, Gibney RT. Anemia and blood transfusion practices in the critically ill: a prospective cohort review. Heart Lung. 2010;39:217-25. 3. Hajjar LA, Auler Junior JO, Santos L, Galas F. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62:507-24. 4. Athar MK, Puri N, Gerber DR. Anemia and Blood Transfusions in Critically Ill Patients. Journal of blood transfusion

REFERENCES 1. Lykissas MG, Crawford AH, Chan G, et al. The effect of tranexamic acid in blood loss and transfusion volume in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a single-surgeon experience. J Child Orthop 2013;7(3):245-9. 2. Liu JM, Fu BQ, Chen WZ, et al. Cell salvage used in scoliosis surgery: is it really effective? World Neurosurg 2017;101:568-76. 3. Oliveira JAA, Façanha Filho FAM, Fernandes FV, et al. Is cell salvage cost-effective in posterior arthrodesis for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the public health system? J Spine Surg 2017;3(1):2-8. 4