This paper presents the analysis of air pollution monitoring and evaluation results in the center of Riga City. The air quality reports have pointed out that road traffic and road infrastructure are the main issues of air pollution in the center of Riga. However, none of the reports validated this assumption considering actual traffic flow data. In the present article, the air pollution data have been collected and analyzed in the context with traffic flow. The statistical analysis of both the air pollution and traffic flow data was performed and the correlation between them was established and evaluated. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations for further improvements of the methodology of measurements necessary for successful air quality assessment in the urban areas and particularly in Riga city are given.
Vilnius, the capital and the largest city of Lithuania, is faced with serious traffic problems. The main streets of the city are overcrowded with traffic. Therefore, the effective ways to ease the congestion should be sought. The paper considers the problem of high traffic intensity and congestion at the intersection of two busy Vilnius streets. Research is based on the analysis of the data stored at the Vilnius Traffic Management Centre and the information obtained in the experimental investigation of traffic flows. All the collected data have been used in the traffic simulation program, to make some effective measures helping to increase traffic capacity of the considered intersection.
The Analysis of Noise Level on Saulkarsti Bypass, Latvia
The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an acknowledged method in the world used for estimating the possible changes to the environment caused by proposed development activities, including the development of linear infrastructures. The EIA of planned projects for building or reconstruction of the motorways in Latvia are usually carried out in a short time frame, and therefore the data characterizing current environmental conditions sometimes are not of the best quality. These kind of data gaps cause an inaccurate prognoses on the possible changes to environmental quality after project implementation. Our research demonstrates that this was the case concerning the weak evaluation of sound levels on the Saulkrasti bypass. Within the framework of the EIA, the prognosis of sound levels was elaborated, prooving that, generally, the traffic sound will be within the officially permissible levels, although the problem points are recognized and the erection of sound barriers are proposed. After construction of bypass, however, the noise monitoring has not been carried out in order to verify whether the prognosis are true. In fact, the results of experimental measurements at four points on the Saulkrasti bypass showed the opposite - the noise level in the daytime (Ld) exceeded the acceptable value at all points of the measurements, including the places with installed sound barriers. The task of our experimental measurements on the bypass was also to find a correlation between the noise level and traffic intensity. The results showed that a correlation between these factors is weak, and the noise level is not directly dependant on traffic intensity, but on the total impact of several factors.
The problem of combating urban noise is closely linked to the rational transformation of the urban environment, which must go through the elimination or reduction of the number of sources of noise, the localization of the noise emission zone, reducing the level of sound sources and protection against noise for the residential areas. Theoretical and experimental studies of acoustic loading on the territory along the highway for the typical section of the urban territory have been conducted. To estimate the complex noise impact from all sources and from individual sources, as well as to predict the total noise exposure for this site, a noise map was constructed using software. As a measure to combat traffic noise in the territory along the highway, the location of the noise protection screen was justified, taking into account the loss of part of the national income as a result of the continuous impact of noise on a person.The results of the research allow to assess the degree of technogenic impact of noise pollution during the operation of the highway, which allows regulating, by administrative and legislative methods, the nature of the impact on natural objects and human health of certain types of activities, as well as reasonably proposing measures that ensure environmental safety when organizing urban streets traffic.
The aim of the study was to determine the levels of selected trace elements in soils and in the common dandelion depending on the distance from a traffic route. The study was conducted in Warsaw near one of the main roads in the suburb of Ursynów. Samples for testing were taken from the 0–25 cm layer at sites located directly alongside the roadway and at a distance of 30, 60 and 300 m from its edge. The amounts of Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in the soils were determined by the AAS method, after extraction in HCl at a concentration of 1 mol·dm−3, and in the aboveground parts and roots of dandelion plants after wet mineralization in a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 by the AAS method. On the basis of the results obtained, it was shown that the concentrations of the tested metals, both in the soils and in the biomass of the test plant, were highest directly at the edge of the roadway and decreased significantly with the distance away from the road. This correlation indicates a significant impact of road transport on heavy metal levels in the environment bordering a traffic route. It was also shown that dandelion plants accumulate higher amounts of heavy metals in the aboveground parts than in the roots, and the heavy metal contents in the dandelion biomass were found to be significantly positively correlated with the amounts of these elements in the soils.
roads. In: Langton, T. E. S., ed. Amphibians and roads . ACO Polymer Products, Shefford, 75–80. Lytvynenko, T. P. 2013. Environmental design principles of highways. Scientific Bulletin of Poltava National Technical University , 4 (39), 122–131 [In Ukrainian]. Mazerolle, M. J. 2008. Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in trafficintensity. Herpetologica , 60 , 45–53. Novitskiy, R. V. 2005. The assessment of amphibian mortality scale on the roads of Belarus during their spring and autumn migrations. In : Proceedings of the Conference of
This paper considers two methods for voice channel seizure in one GSM cell, which uses VAMOS technics for traffic efficiency improvement. An important characteristic for models comparison is call loss caused by unsuccessful connection pairing in one timeslot. The first method gives priority to voice connection quality, and the other one to traffic efficiency. The methods are estimated by the simulation, which is first tested by comparing its results to the calculation results for a very small system. The influences of traffic intensity, allowed power difference of two paired connections and attenuation coefficient on the loss caused by unsuccessful pairing are assessed.
A lot of substances and items are transported by road, sea, rail and air every day. The biggest hazard is created by the transportation of hazardous substances with flammable, caustic or toxic properties. The hazard level increases if such substances are transported through densely populated areas. Traffic intensity, the technical condition of vehicles, drivers’ errors or ignorance and non-compliance with legal regulations are examples of factors that can lead to potential failures in the transport sector. Accidents can cause an uncontrolled release of dangerous gases or liquids, resulting e.g. in environmental degradation or a hazard to humans. The article presents the issues related to the hazards presented by road transportation of hazardous materials. Examples are shown of potential effects of accidents and hazard zones arising due to a release of selected hazardous substances, such as chlorine, ammonia, petrol, diesel oil or LPG.
At present, high traffic intensity level on the roads currently saturates a great demand for individual transportation. Mobility is an important part of everyday activities in cities. The increasing number of passenger and freight vehicles on the widening transport infrastructure raises several problems. The range of use of public passenger transport does satisfy enough the citizens needs and its use is constantly decreasing, especially in the new EU countries. One of the reasons is also the growing sale and production of new passenger cars in the EU, resulting in congestion in the road infrastructure of cities and environmental problems. These issues are dealt with the modern City Logistics concept. The contribution focused on the basic principles of city logistics, the reasons for its development and, in particular, the possibilities of practical use. An example is the city of Trenčín in Slovakia, where a regional rail passenger transport is proposed for city traffic service including Park and Ride system.
Changing factors (mainly traffic intensity and weather conditions) affecting road conditions require a suitable optimal speed at any time. To solve this problem, variable speed limit systems (VSL) - as opposed to fixed limits - have been developed in recent decades. This term has included a number of speed management systems, most notably dynamic speed limits (DSL). In order to avoid the indiscriminate use of both terms in the literature, this paper proposes a simple classification and offers a review of some experiences, how their effects are evaluated and their results This study also presents a key indicator which measures the speed homogeneity and a methodology to obtain the data based on floating cars and GPS technology applying it to a case study on a section of the M30 urban motorway in Madrid (Spain). It also presents the relation between this indicator and road performance and emissions values.