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The worldwide trade in non-pathogen-free animals and their products has led to irreparable global spread of animal infections. Among factors supporting this spread belong: countless pathogen species able to reproduce and spread horizontally and to the next generations causing immense number of sufferings and premature deaths of affected animals and humans; increasing long distance export of animals and their products due also to not requiring by relevant international organizations healthy and innocuous pathogen-free commodities; illegal export/import of animals and their products; deficiencies related to diagnosis of pathogen-free status; inability to discover all imported infections, to control and eradicate them; international sanitary certificates without pathogen-free guarantee; inability of public animal health services to control on the spot the international trade with animal commodities; minimum of successfull animal infection eradications and absence of information about global spreading of pathogens to alert the countries in question. Huge daily flow of exported non-pathogen-free animal commodities conduces to permanent deterioration of global epizootiological situation. Irreparable man-made global spread of invisible pathogens with continuous multiplying sanitary, economic, social and ecological consequences represents a worldwide ecological disaster contributing to shortening life on Earth and survival of species, including self-destruction of humankind. Extraordinary existential significance requires international control of epizootics to be dealt with at the highest decision-making level of the United Nations Organization.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), an international organization established in 1995, plays a special role of the global rules-based anchor that makes trade relations fairer and predictable. One of the challenges confronting WTO is to enhance liberal trade policies. Governments recognised the importance of trade liberalisation as a means to economic growth and progress. Open markets, non-discrimination, and transparency in international trade are essential to foster world economy through trade on the basis of global competitiveness. Thus, respecting various aspects of the multilateral trade disciplines is indispensable to boost trade and to support development strategy of the world economy. Global economic crisis revealed however, a number of major deficiencies within the WTO system. Among some significant weaknesses drawing an attention are: difficulties to resist protectionist pressures, the issue of efficiency of the WTO system for the actual "traders", and the issue of universal membership. The purpose of the paper is to discuss these potential dangers as there is a need for increased vigilance to support the WTO system fulfilling its objectives. In general, deficiencies of the WTO system require members to work together to ensure its strength and vibrancy to adapt and adjust to existing and emerging trade priorities, especially in the context of the paralysis in the negotiating functions of the WTO (fears about unsuccessful conclusion of the Doha Round).
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A global distribution channel with a reliable freight transport system is essential in the contemporary world economy. Acting as trade facilitators, seaports are important players in the system. The study of the role of ports in supply chain management has recently drawn increasing attention from researchers and industry professionals alike. However, prior works mainly gathered the views from ports and terminals. To the authors’ knowledge, no attempt by previous empirical studies has been made to cover the perspective from shippers and logistics providers, who are obviously taking a serious role in the process of global freight movements as major stakeholders. It becomes thus imperative to assess a port’s supply chain orientation and performance from the perspective of the port users in the supply chain. Studying ports in the network context would be even more beneficial to capture the complexity needed to understand port performance and its interaction with various stakeholders. Drawing reference from multi-disciplinary fields, this paper aims to fill in the gap by developing a so-called unified framework for analysing port’s integration in global freight supply chains including shipping line networks, hinterland and intermodal transport network, and even urban network. The framework embraces a wider group of stakeholders involved, for example, terminal operators, port authorities, shippers, shipping companies, inland transport providers, freight forwarders/logistics service providers, cities and other ports in the networks. A port that is a key node in these networks simultaneously would be able to create and sustain value for port stakeholders. Port authorities and operators can refer to the framework as their network performance indicators so as to obtain a better understanding of the various considerations in a port’s network performance and to assist in positioning the port within the complex dynamics in the context of global freight supply chains. Finally, the framework developed in the paper can serve as a guide to empirical examinations of an emerging theme - a network-oriented performance by seaports along global freight supply chains - leading to various possible channels in future research.
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