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Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

. 1339-1394). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. Linder, S., 1961. An Essay on Trade and Transformation . Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells. Linnemann, H., 1966. An Econometric Study of International Trade Flows . Amsterdam: North-Holland. Moïsé, E., Orliac, T., and Minor, P., 2011. Trade Facilitation Indicators: The Impact on Trade Costs. OECD Trade Policy Papers, 118 . DOI: 10.1787/5kg6nk654hmr-en Moïsé, E., and Sorescu, S., 2013. Trade Facilitation Indicators: The Potential Impact of Trade Facilitation on Developing Countries Trade. OECD Trade

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Irreparable Global Spread of Pathogens and International Trade – Facilitating Factors

Abstract

The worldwide trade in non-pathogen-free animals and their products has led to irreparable global spread of animal infections. Among factors supporting this spread belong: countless pathogen species able to reproduce and spread horizontally and to the next generations causing immense number of sufferings and premature deaths of affected animals and humans; increasing long distance export of animals and their products due also to not requiring by relevant international organizations healthy and innocuous pathogen-free commodities; illegal export/import of animals and their products; deficiencies related to diagnosis of pathogen-free status; inability to discover all imported infections, to control and eradicate them; international sanitary certificates without pathogen-free guarantee; inability of public animal health services to control on the spot the international trade with animal commodities; minimum of successfull animal infection eradications and absence of information about global spreading of pathogens to alert the countries in question. Huge daily flow of exported non-pathogen-free animal commodities conduces to permanent deterioration of global epizootiological situation. Irreparable man-made global spread of invisible pathogens with continuous multiplying sanitary, economic, social and ecological consequences represents a worldwide ecological disaster contributing to shortening life on Earth and survival of species, including self-destruction of humankind. Extraordinary existential significance requires international control of epizootics to be dealt with at the highest decision-making level of the United Nations Organization.

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Some Deficiencies Within the WTO System

Some Deficiencies Within the WTO System

The World Trade Organization (WTO), an international organization established in 1995, plays a special role of the global rules-based anchor that makes trade relations fairer and predictable. One of the challenges confronting WTO is to enhance liberal trade policies. Governments recognised the importance of trade liberalisation as a means to economic growth and progress. Open markets, non-discrimination, and transparency in international trade are essential to foster world economy through trade on the basis of global competitiveness. Thus, respecting various aspects of the multilateral trade disciplines is indispensable to boost trade and to support development strategy of the world economy. Global economic crisis revealed however, a number of major deficiencies within the WTO system. Among some significant weaknesses drawing an attention are: difficulties to resist protectionist pressures, the issue of efficiency of the WTO system for the actual "traders", and the issue of universal membership. The purpose of the paper is to discuss these potential dangers as there is a need for increased vigilance to support the WTO system fulfilling its objectives. In general, deficiencies of the WTO system require members to work together to ensure its strength and vibrancy to adapt and adjust to existing and emerging trade priorities, especially in the context of the paralysis in the negotiating functions of the WTO (fears about unsuccessful conclusion of the Doha Round).

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Requisite Skill Availability and Multinational Corporations Locational Strategies in Nigeria

), 831–835. Dennis, A., Shepherd, B. (2011). Trade facilitation and export diversification. The World Economy , 34 (1), 101–122. Du, J.L., Lu, Y., Tao, Z.G. (2012). Institutions and FDI location choice: The role of cultural distances. Journal of Asian Economics , 23 (3), 210–223. Edun, A.O. (2011). A Study of interactive effect of FDI on infrastructural development: Cement contribution in Nigeria . Wuhan University of Technology, China. Fitzgerald, T.J. (1998). Introduction to the Search Theory of Unemployment. Federal Reserve Bank of

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Seaport network performance measurement in the context of global freight supply chains

Abstract

A global distribution channel with a reliable freight transport system is essential in the contemporary world economy. Acting as trade facilitators, seaports are important players in the system. The study of the role of ports in supply chain management has recently drawn increasing attention from researchers and industry professionals alike. However, prior works mainly gathered the views from ports and terminals. To the authors’ knowledge, no attempt by previous empirical studies has been made to cover the perspective from shippers and logistics providers, who are obviously taking a serious role in the process of global freight movements as major stakeholders. It becomes thus imperative to assess a port’s supply chain orientation and performance from the perspective of the port users in the supply chain. Studying ports in the network context would be even more beneficial to capture the complexity needed to understand port performance and its interaction with various stakeholders. Drawing reference from multi-disciplinary fields, this paper aims to fill in the gap by developing a so-called unified framework for analysing port’s integration in global freight supply chains including shipping line networks, hinterland and intermodal transport network, and even urban network. The framework embraces a wider group of stakeholders involved, for example, terminal operators, port authorities, shippers, shipping companies, inland transport providers, freight forwarders/logistics service providers, cities and other ports in the networks. A port that is a key node in these networks simultaneously would be able to create and sustain value for port stakeholders. Port authorities and operators can refer to the framework as their network performance indicators so as to obtain a better understanding of the various considerations in a port’s network performance and to assist in positioning the port within the complex dynamics in the context of global freight supply chains. Finally, the framework developed in the paper can serve as a guide to empirical examinations of an emerging theme - a network-oriented performance by seaports along global freight supply chains - leading to various possible channels in future research.

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The Impact of Transport on International Trade Development

., ET AL. (2004), “Assessing the Potential Benefit of Trade Facilitation: A Global Perspective”. World Bank Policy Research Working paper , 3224 WOLF, M. (2005), Why Globalization works . New Haven and London: Yale University Press Internetske stranice / Web pages http://www.progressive.com.hr/component/content/article/62-kolumne/5547-sto-uracunati-u-stvarne-logisticke-troskove.html , 12.02.2016. http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TPTS_pubs/pub_2392/pub_2392_ch12.pdf , 13.07.2013.

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Foundation of Global Epizootiology – a New Branch of Life Sciences

. Kouba V. (2014): Irreparable Global Spread of Pathogens and International Trade - Infection Monitoring. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica 47(4): 147 - 154. Kouba V. (2015): Irreparable global spread of pathogens and international trade - facilitating factors. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica 48 (1): 37 - 43. Kouba V. (2015): Irreparable global spread of pathogens and international trade - sanitary requirements. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica 48 (3 - 4), 105 - 114. FAO (1956 - 1995): FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook

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Role of CPEC in Development of Trade, Transport and Economy of Pakistan

Publications (Policy Research Working Paper No. 270),2004. [10]. J. F. ARVIS, G. RABALLAND, J. F. MARTEAU, “ The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistic Cost and Supply Chain Reliability ”, World Bank Publications (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4258), 2007. [11]. D.NJINKEU, J. S. WILSON, B. P. FOSSO, “ Expanding Trade within Africa: The Impact of Trade Facilitation ”. World Bank Publications (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4790), 2008. [12]. V. AHMAD, S. GHULAM, “ Trade Facilitation for Economic Corridors in South Asia: The Perspective of Pakistan

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The Developement of EU Customs Law: From The Community Customs Code to The Union Customs Code

and P Minor, „Trade Facilitation Indicators: The Impact on Trade Costs‟ (2011) 3. OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 118. 4. OECD, „Quantitative assessment of the benefits of trade facilitation‟ (2003) <TD/TC/ WP(2003)31/FINAL> accessed 6 August 2012 5. OECD Policy Brief October 2005, „The costs and benefits of trade facilitation‟ 6. B Rukanova, E Van stijn, H Henriksen, Z Baida, Y.H Tan, „Understanding the influence of multiple levels of governments on the development of interorganizational systems

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Dynamics of Product Complexity in Africa: Structural Estimation Using Structuralists Model

International Growth Rate Differences. PSL Quarterly Review,Vol. 64 n.256, pp. 429-438. UNECA, 2013. Trade Facilitation from an African Perspective, Addis Abeba: United Nations Economic Comission for Africa. UNECA, 2015. Industrializing through trade, Addis Abeba: United Nations Economics Commission for Africa. Vernon, R., 1966. International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics 80, pp. 191-207. Weitzman, M. L., 1998. RECOMBINANT GROWTH. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. CXIII. Wooldridge

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