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airway device during percutaneous tracheostomy. Anaesthesia 2014; 69(7):757-63. 4. Strametz R, Pachler C, Kramer JF et al. Laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 6:CD009901. 5. Pratt T, Bromilow J. Laryngeal mask airway for airway control during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2011; 39(6):1009-13. 6. Pourciau DC, Hotard DP 3rd, Hayley S et al. Safety and efficacy of laryngeal mask airway ventilation in obese patients with

. Torbey MT, Bösel J, Rhoney DH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of large hemispheric infarction. Neurocrit Care. 2015;22:146-64. 5. Koh WY, Lew TW, Chin NM, Wong MF. Tracheostomy in a neuro-intensive care setting: indications and timing. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1997;25:365-8. 6. Coplin WM, Pierson DJ, Cooley KD, Newell DW, Rubenfeld GD. Implications of extubation delay in brain-injured patients meeting standard weaning criteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1530-6. 7. Anderson CD, Bartscher JF, Scripko PD, et al. Neurologic examination and

Anestesiol Reanim., 1999;46(2):88-91. 54. Jonas N., Mulwafu W., Joubert J. - Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy. S Afr J Surg., 2007;45(3):105-106. 55. Engels P.T., Bagshaw S.M., Meier M., Brindley P.G. - Tracheostomy: from insertion to decannulation. Can J Surg., 2009;52(5):427-433. 56. Agostoni A., Cicardi M. - Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: biological and clinical characteristics in 235 patients. Medicine (Baltimore)., 1992;71(4):206-215. 57. Kieu M.C., Bangiyev J.N., Thottam P.J., Levy P.D. - Predictors of Airway Intervention in Angiotensin

ABSTRACT

Ventilator-associated pneumonias have been estimated to be the second most common nosocomial infections among children treated in intensive care units. They occur in mechanically ventilated patients through intubation tube or tracheostomy, the infl ammation usually involving the lung parenchyma. The ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with a longer antibiotic treatment, greater duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and higher mortality rates in children. The condition is also associated with a higher cost of the treatment. This paper reviews and comments in detail the criteria formulated by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNSI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonias in children. The disease etiology is associated with the typical causes of nosocomial infections in this age: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The pathogenesis of the condition is inadequately studied but the aspiration of gastric contents and immune defi ciency are proven risk factors. Two mechanisms have a major role in the development of the disease - micro-aspiration of gastric contents and colonization of the lower airways with pathogens.

Irritant vocal cord dysfunction and occupational bronchial asthma: differential diagnosis in a health care worker

Objectives: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is an uncommon respiratory disease characterized by the paradoxical adduction of vocal cords during inspiration, that may mimic bronchial asthma. The pathogenesis of VCD has not been clearly defined but it is possible to recognize non-psychologic and psychologic causes. The majority of patients are female but, interestingly, a high incidence of VCD has been documented in health care workers. A misdiagnosis with asthma leads to hospitalisation, unnecessary use of systemic steroids with related adverse effects, and sometimes tracheostomy and intubation. In a subset of VCD patients, the disease can be attributed to occupational or environmental exposure to inhaled irritants. Materials and Methods: We report the case of a 45-year-old woman, working as a nurse, who complained of wheezing, cough, dyspnoea related to inhalation of irritating agents (isopropylic alcohol, formaldehyde, peracetic acid). She underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function assessment both in the presence and in the absence of symptoms, bronchial provocation with methacholine and bronchodilation test with salbutamol to recognize asthma's features, allergy evaluation by skin prick tests and patch tests and video-laryngoscopy. Results: VCD diagnosis was made on the basis of video-laryngoscopy, that visualized the paradoxical motion of the vocal cords during symptoms, in the absence of other pathologic processes. Conclusions: This case fulfils the proposed criteria for the diagnosis of irritant VCD (IVCD). This is the first report of VCD onset following exposure to several irritants: formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, isopropylic alcohol, peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture. These substances are used as cleaning and antiseptic agents in healthcare settings and some ones can also be found in many indoor environments. A correct diagnosis is important both to give the appropriate treatment and for medical legal implications.

Abstract

Background: Pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases may have pathological airway abnormality and delayed development. To predict the appropriate size of endotracheal tube (ETT), a formula between diameter and age has been widely used for Western normal children. However, it is unclear whether this age-based (AB) formula is applicable to Thai pediatric cardiac patients. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of uncuffed ETT size by AB formula for pediatric cardiac patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using 320 cases of non-cardiac and cardiac patients aged 2-7 years old who were orally intubated with a regular uncuffed ETT at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. The exclusion criteria were history of tracheostomy, upper airway obstruction, and expected difficult intubation. Demographic data and final ETT used were recorded. Results: The tube- size predicted by the AB formula could be applied to 54.4% of non-cardiac and 48.1% of cardiac patients (p= 0.314), whereas three sizes of tubes (one above and one below the predicted size) covered 96.9% and 94.4% of non-cardiac and cardiac patients, respectively (p = 0.413). The ETT with 0.5 mm in ID larger than the predicted size were more often used in 35.0% of cardiac patients compared with 22.5% of non-cardiac patients (p= 0.019). There were no significant differences between methods using age (actual, round-up, and truncated) to calculate the AB formula. The Pearson’s correlation between the ID of the ETT with height in non-cardiac and cardiac patients were 0.430 and 0.683, respectively (p <0.001), whereas correlations with weight were 0.622 and 0.561 (p <0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The AB formula was applicable to non-cardiac and cardiac children aged 2-7 years old. For Thai pediatric cardiac patients, we recommend to use a one-size larger ETT than non-cardiac patients.

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