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References Barančok, P. (1996). Changes in the representation of the selected plant species on the trampling sites of the surrounding of tourist path in the Belianske Tatry Mts (in Slovak). In Eliaš, P. (Ed.), Populačná biológia rastlín IV (pp. 90-92). Bratislava-Nitra: SEKOS. Barančok, P. & Barančokova M. (2008). Evaluation of the Tourist Path Carrying Capacity in the Belianske Tatry Mts.Ekológia (Bratislava), 27(4), 401−420. Bielawska, M. & Tsermegas I. (2009). Anthropogenic degradation of the tourist trail in the Samaria Gorge (Western Crete). Landform

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the tourism carrying capacity on hiking trails in the Szczeliniec Wielki and Błędne Skały. Those attractions are located in the Stołowe Mts. National Park of the Sudetes in the South-Western part of Poland along the border with the Czech Republic. The total area of the Stołowe Mts. NP is 6,340 ha and it contains around 100 km of marked hiking trails. Tourist traffic in the Szczeliniec Wielki and Błędne Skały has its peaks during weekends and holiday periods reaching mass tourism scales. For this reason it is important to establish a clear tourism carrying capacity and to ensure this capacity is not exceeded. In this study, tourism carrying capacity was estimated based on trail width measurements and observations on the visitors’ behavior on trails. As a result an optimal distance between the visitors on a hiking trail was determined to be 4 meters of trail length per person. Whether the tourist carrying capacity was exceeded, was determined by calculating an index based on visitor data collected through the Monitoring System of tourist traffic (MStt). The MStt system consists of 38 infrared traffic counters (pyro-electric sensors) installed at the tourist trail entrances within the Stołowe Mts. National Park borders. Visitor data were aggregated into daily, monthly and annual reports, taking into account the direction of the visitors traffic on the studied hiking trails, i.e., entries only (IN), exits only (OUT) and total passings (IN+OUT). The tourist flow in Stołowe Mts. NP was characterized by its strong fluctuations over time with the carrying capacity index being exceeded only during long weekends and holiday periods. Additionally, the peak in traffic occurred around midday in spring and summer months. During those periods, the average traffic exceeded the hourly tourism carrying capacity by ca. 30%. Significant differences in tourist traffic were due the variability in visitor numbers, time of peak traffic and the dynamics of visitor numbers.

Abstract

An increasing importance of the social functions of the forest entails the necessity to modify forestry management in a way which would ensure its social acceptance. This mainly concerns those parts of the forest that are “most visible”, in the surroundings of roads, tourist trails, as well as water bodies. The article discusses the importance of view analyses in forest landscaping. On the basis of the adopted methodological assumptions, the assessment of landscape resources of the forest in the vicinity of a water reservoir in the Kielce Forest District (Radom Regional Forest Directorate) has been made. Available ortophotomaps and aerial photographs taken by UAVs were used for view analyses together with elevation data collected through airborne laser scanning. The results obtained allow to make recommendations for the protection of the reservoir exposure as well as engineering forest management and silviculture. Consequently, the inclusion of visual analyses into the planning stage enables verification of the quality of forest management plans.

Abstract

Tourism in rural areas has been defined as all tourist activities conducted in rural areas. The development of tourism in rural areas is dependent on external factors (e.g. landscape attractiveness), as well as internal factors (e.g. involvement of local authorities and society). Hence, it is important to increase the tourism potential for further increase of local tourism, and in turn to intensify the social-economic development according to a sustainable policy and multifunctional rural development. The main aim of the present study was to indicate possibilities to improve tourism management of the Zbąszyń urban-rural commune. For this purpose the following detailed aims were set: to evaluate local society satisfaction with tourism development in Zbąszyń commune, to evaluate the natural-landscape state of the analyzed area, to designate a new tourist trail or to revise the existing trails, and to propose modernization of existing tourism infrastructure. The obtained results revealed that in the opinion of local society there is still not sufficient tourism development despite some natural-landscape values. Hence, activities connected with tourism enrichment should be mainly connected with designation of two new cycling trails and supplementation of tourist information signs and tables. All proposed activities leading to an increase of tourism potential should bear in mind social aspects as well as natural values and would have a positive effect on economic income of the area.

Geodiversity map of the Tatra National Park for geotourism

The paper indicates the relations between geodiversity and geotourism in the Tatra National Park. Geodiversity of the Tatra Mountains is visualized by its geodiversity map, whereas geotouristic attractions are measured by touristic attractions along touristic trails on geodiversity map. Areas of the highest geodiversity cover merely 8.2% of the Tatar National Park area. These are mainly areas close to the Tatra Mountains' main ridge. It is so due to geology, landform energy, slopes, landform fragmentation and geoecological belts. Most of the analyzed thematic layers categorizes ridges as more geodiversed than valley areas. The trails situated in the valley bottoms usually cross by areas of low geodiversity, however, from geotouristic point of view, it should be noted that slopes and ridges circumvolving the valley can be marked by high geodiversity. The mountain slopes and ridges are within tourist's sight, what increases trail's geotouristic attractiveness. Amongst many geotouristically interesting parts of the Tatra Mountains Dolina Pięciu Stawów valley appears to be the most appealing with its high quantity and high variety of post-glacial forms on valley's bottom as well as on its slopes.

Hiking Trails for Tourists in the "Chełmy" Landscape Park - Assessment of Their Route and Infrastructure Development

Introduction. The objective of the work was to assess the development of hiking trails for tourists and their infrastructure in the "Chełmy" Landscape Park in Lower Silesia. Material and methods. The analysis concerned a network of tourist trails whose coherence and shape were evaluated based on the indices derived from the graph theory. Also the correspondence between the names given to some trails with the tourist attractions accessible via such trails was assessed, and their number was compared to the length of the relevant trails. The analysis of the development of infrastructure for hiking tourists was conducted based on the results of local stocktaking and determination of tourist traffic density. Results. The obtained results show that the network of trails across the Park is quite well developed and coherent, despite the diversity of infrastructural development. The correspondence between the names of trails with their tourist attractions was confirmed with some reservations. Conclusions. Diverse trails in the studied area should be integrated into a coherent network by their similar development level, and in particular by introducing uniform marking standards. It would be also worth providing better access to some attractions for hiking tourists by introducing appropriate access routes.

Abstract

The Katowice conurbation comprises of towns which have developed because of the mining of metal ores, coal and raw rock materials. The development of mining and industry which have lasted for centuries has resulted in the specific character of the landscape of the area with its typical indicators such as housing estates built for the working class, winding towers, chimneys of steelworks, coking plants, power stations, drifts, quarries, etc. The residents of mining communities, and local governments within the conurbation, which have developed owing to mining, are aware of the impending economic slowdown after liquidation of coal mines. Therefore, development of the service sector, including tourism, based on postindustrial facilities can become an important factor in restructuring the economy. This article presents a classification of post-industrial cultural heritage sites prepared for the purpose of geotourism. Several categories of such sites have been distinguished: 1) historic mining landscapes, 2) places adapted for recreation, 3) places documenting changes in the groundwater environment, 4) characteristic Silesian landscapes, places commemorating stages of development of the mining industry, 5) post-mining sites adapted for service, commercial or residential purposes, 6) mining museums and open-air museums. The described post-mining sites occur in different parts of the Katowice conurbation; therefore, linking them by a system of tourist trails and surrounding them by zones of protected landscape will be an important task for the future. Material remains of the industrial culture preserved within the Katowice conurbation, despite their diversity, form complexes of monuments complementary to those that can be found in the entire industrialized Europe. Therefore, the industrial heritage in the area of the Katowice conurbation is an important part of the European, supranational heritage.

tourist trails: geographical aspects, Vestnik of National academy of tourism , 4, St. Petersburg, 4, pp. 53-57. K orolev A.Y., 2012, Feasibility study of the establishment of the National Park ‘Kvarkush Ridge’ in the area of Krasnovishersk region, Perm Krai, Geographic Vestnik , 1 (20), pp. 99-105. M ishlavtceva S.E., 2007, Active tourism in Ural regions (trail principle for territorial organization) Abstract for a thesis for the degree of the candidate of Geographic Sciences , Perm. Government Executive Order of the Russian Federation of 22 December 2011, N 2322

Information Sciences, Volume I-3, 2012, XXII ISPRS Congress, 25 August - 01 September 2012, Melbourne, Australia. 4. Janočková J., Koščová M., Jablonská J. (2012), Consideration of geological and ecological factors in tourist trail planning: Case study of the Suchá Belá Gorge (Slovakia). Acta Geoturistica, t. 3, n. 2, s. 1-8. 5. Kasztelewicz Z., Ptak M. (2011), Rekultywacja terenów pogórniczych w kopalniach surowców skalnych. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Górnictwa Politechniki Wrocławskiej nr 39, Studia i Materiały nr 132, s. 165-178. 6. Kondracki J. (1978), Geografia fizyczna

-3040/2000/294577/ MAR/D2, University of the Aegean, Athens. Czochański J. 1997. Basic problems of sharing the TDI for hiking and environmental risk and bandwidth use of tourist trails. In: TPN Protection Plan. Sampling sharing for science, education and tourism. Decree No. 7/2014 Director Roztoczański National Park in Zwierzyniec of 25 February 2014 on the principles of access to public Roztoczański National Park. Gucma M. 2013. Social preferences for the cycling routes in the RPN and its buffer zone. Engineering work under the direction of Dr. E. Janeczko. Warsaw University of Life