Waterpipe tobaccosmoking (WTS) is a global health concern and is an alternative form of tobacco use that involves passing tobacco smoke through water before inhalation.[ 1 , 2 ] WTS is a traditional type of smoking that is present for many centuries.[ 3 ] The WTS first started in India and later spread to the whole world.[ 4 , 5 , 6 ] The recent reports from the last two decades show a much higher prevalence of this serious health issue from the developed world as well.[ 4 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]
The WTS is known around the world by many different names
Marcin Berger, Monika Litko, Michał Ginszt, Hassan Alharby, Jacek Szkutnik, Piotr Majcher and Jolanta Szymańska
31. Moylan S, Jacka FN, Pasco JA, et al. How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: a critical review of biological pathways. Brain Behav. 2013;3:302-26.
32. Kassim S, Farsalinos KE. E-cigarette as a harm reduction approach among tobaccosmoking khat chewers: a promising bullet of multiple gains. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13:240.
33. Damena T, Mossie A, Tesfaye M. Khat chewing and mental distress: a community based study, in Jimma city, southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci
Robert Edgren, Sari Castrén, Markus Jokela and Anne H. Salonen
significant. The American Statistician, 60(4), 328-331.
Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Odlaug, B. L., & Potenza, M. N. (2008). Daily tobaccosmoking in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: Clinical correlates and cooccurring psychiatric disorders. Journal of Addiction medicine, 2(4), 178-184.
Grant J. E., Odlaug M. P. H., & Mooney M. E. (2012). Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling: Association with gender and comorbidities. J Nerv Ment Dis, 200(11), 996-998.
Griffiths, M. (1997). Computer game playing in early
Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Njideka Jacob Nwafor, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Bashar Muhammad Aliyu and Precious Ayomide Ogundipe
Background: Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior with heavy risks accompanying its prolonged practice. Unfortunately, more and more people are indulging in tobacco smoking habits despite the public health education programs going on worldwide about the dangers associated with tobacco smoking behavior. This study aims to survey active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area (LGA), Kebbi State, Nigeria, on the awareness of the harmful effects associated with shisha smoking.
Methods: This study was a survey of 45 active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi LGA. Snowballing technique was adopted in participants’ recruitment. Study instrument was a questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.
Results: Majority (32/45) of the participants were males, 16 had secondary school education, and 19 were within age range of 15 to 24 years. The majority (25/45) of them began to smoke shisha at the age of 18 years or more; also, 20 participants smoked shisha in all the 30 days prior to their participation in this study. Less than half of the study participants knew that: shisha is a stimulant (6/45), shisha smoke contains carbon monoxide (10/45), and the liquid in shisha could be replaced with alcohol (15/45). However, more than half of the participants knew that shisha contains nicotine (23/45) and tobacco (25/45). Only 16, 13, 11, 9, 5, 10, and 13 participants knew that shisha smoking could lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, increase in the risk of infections, reduced baby weight in pregnancy, gum and mouth disease, eye disease and blindness, and harm to non-smokers, respectively.
Conclusion: Many of the active shisha smokers surveyed in this study began smoking shisha at a young age. Also, a significant proportion of them were unaware of the health hazards associated with shisha use; hence the need to educate them and even the Nigerian public on the dangers associated with shisha use.
Csilla Benedek (Bukhari), Mónika Kovács, M Pop and Anita Balog
. J Clin Periodontol. 2004;34:749-757.
16. Gera I, Váry M. A fogágybetegség rizikótényezői és szerepük a fogágybetegség patomechanizmusában, in Gera I. (ed.): Parodontológia, Budapest, Semmelweis Kiadó, 2009, 122.
17. Bergstrom J. Tobaccosmoking and risk for periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2003;30:107-113.
Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (±3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
Márta Germán-Salló, Zoltan Preg, Dalma Bálint Szentendrey, Enikő Nemes-Nagy, Mihály Imre László, Zita Fazakas, Edith Simona Ianosi, Pál István Kikeli, Zoltán Ábrám and Péter Balázs
Objectives: To describe tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, second-hand smoke exposure, and training in cessation counselling at the University of Medicine Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu-Mureș (UMPSTTM), as baseline data for the first Romanian university to implement a Smoke Free University Project.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered in 2014 among dental students at UMPSTTM to explore their smoking habits, attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, exposure to second-hand smoke, interest in quitting, and their knowledge about cessation counselling. We used core questions of the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) and added specific items related to the Smoke Free University Project. Data were analysed by SPSS v22 software. We compared our results with those of the GHPSS Survey.
Results: 581 dental students, 73.1% of the target population (n=795), completed the questionnaire. 38.7% were current smokers. Approximately 1 in 5 (22.6%) current smokers admitted smoking inside university buildings, although 80.7% were aware of the smoking ban. 44.2% of current smokers plan to quit smoking. Nearly half of the students (48.9%) were exposed to secondhand smoke in their current homes, 78.1% in public places and 33.3% inside the university buildings. Only 21.0% of all participants received any formal training on how to help future patients quit.
Conclusions: Tobacco use prevalence was higher among future dentists than in the majority of respondents to the GHPSS. Changes in dental school education are needed to promote personal smoking cessation, as well as to educate dentists on how to support their future patients quitting.
Małgorzata Dżugan, Bernadeta Błażej and Monika Tomczyk
palących papierosy. Żyw Człow Metab. 2003;30(1-2): 53-6.
9. Śmiechowska M. Effect of tobaccosmoking on the choice of mode of nutrition and dietary behaviours – Preliminary study. Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2015;21(1):107-11.
10. Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 4 sierpnia 2016 r. w sprawie Narodowego Programu Zdrowia na lata 2016–2020. Dz. U. poz. 1492.
11. Williams GC, Minicucci DS, Kouides RW, et al. Self-determination, smoking, diet and health. Health Educ Res 2002;17:512-21. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/17.5.512
12. Watson JM, Scarinci IC, Klesges
A specific, sensitive method for the determination of formaldehyde in cigarette smoke is described employing the spectrophotometric detection of the product formed by reaction of formaldehyde with p-rosaniline and sulphur dioxide. The procedure is applicable to the analysis of smoke from cigarettes manufactured from flue-cured, Burley and fermented tobaccos. Smoking parameters and the use of Cambridge filters have been found to affect delivery markedly. The effect of several commercial filters on formaldehyde delivery has been examined.