Tissueengineering is the science of generating tissues for replacing the malfunctioning tissues or organs in the body. Advances in biotechnology and material science has led to rapid developments in the field of tissueengineering ( 1 , 2 ). Polymers, hydrogels and decellularised animal tissues are different types of biomaterials that are used to generate tissue engineered constructs in combinations with cells ( 3 , 4 ).
Due to the potential of generating differentiated cells, the tissue engineered constructs are commonly, first
generation poly(hydroxyacid) composite scaffolds for tissue reengineering, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 105B (2017) 1667−1684; https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.33674
4. A. R. Amini, C. T. Laurencin and S. P. Nukavarapu, Bone tissueengineering: recent advances and challenges, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 40 (2012) 363−408.
5. S. Bose, M. Roy and A. Bandyopadhyay, Recent advances in bone tissueengineering scaffolds, Trends Biotechnol. 30 (2012) 546−554; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2012.07.005
6. L. Wu, L. Wang, X. Wang and K. Xu
Background: Tissue engineering takes on many approaches. It is mostly followed by those in the field through scientific literature. However, there is a virtually untapped resource in patent literature.
Objective: This review focuses on patents through the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). This source is used only because the author is most familiar with this resource. This article is not intended to be instructional regarding patents, patent law, or how to apply for patents, nor is it intended to be all inclusive of the patent literature. However, the reader might see the value of following the patent literature as a source of ideas, technologies, methodologies, and knowledge with respect to tissue engineering.
Zhenyu Wang, Ning Ma, Dehua Chang and Huimin Huang
1. Oberpenning F, Meng J, Yoo JJ, Atala A. De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary bladder by tissueengineering. Nat Biotechnol. 1999; 17:149-55.
2. Godbey WT, Hindy SB, Sherman ME, Atala A. A novel use of centrifugal force for cell seeding into porous scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2004; 25:2799-805.
3. Shimizu K, Ito A, Honda H. Mag-seeding of rat bone marrow stromal cells into porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissueengineering. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007; 104
Masoumeh Haghbin Nazarpak, Farzaneh Pourasgari, Maryam Aghajamali and Mohammadnabi Sarbolouki
1. Vindigni V, Cortivo R, Iacobellis L, Abatangelo G, Zavan B. Hyaluronan benzyl ester as a scaffold for tissueengineering. Int J Mol Sci. 2009; 10:2972-85.
2. Mistry AS, Mikos AG. Tissueengineering strategies for bone regeneration. Adv Biochem Engin/Biotechnol. 2005; 94:1-22.
3. Tan Q, Steiner R, Hoerstrup SP, Weder W. Tissueengineered trachea: history, problems and the future. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006; 30:782-6.
4. Liu X, Ma PX. Polymeric scaffolds for bone tissueengineering
P. Danilevičius, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, T. Gertus, D. Paipulas, J. Matukaitė, D. Baltriukienė and M. Malinauskas
technique for structuring microlenses. J. Opt., 12 (3), 035204.
Ovsianikov, A., Schlie, S., Ngezahayo, A., Haverich, A., & Chichkov, B. N. (2008). Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials. J. Tissue. Eng. Regen. Med., 1 (6), 443-449.
Griffith, L.G., & Naughton, G. (2002). Expanding opportunities in tissueengineering - current challenges. Science, 295 (5557).
Malinauskas, M., Danilevičius, P
Masoume Haghbin Nazarpak, Farzaneh Pourasgari and Mohammahdnabi Sarbolouki
1. Chen G, Ushida T, Tateishi T. Development of biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissueengineering. Materials Science Engineering. 2001; C17:63-9.
2. Hutmacher DW, Garcia AJ. Scaffold-based bone engineering by using genetically modified cells. Gene. 2005; 347:1-10.
3. Zhu X, Cui W, Li X, Jin Y. Electrospun fibrous mats with high porosity as potential scaffolds for skin tissueengineering. Biomacromolecules. 2008; 9: 1795-801.
4. Budyanto L, Ooi CP, Goh YQ. Fabrication and
1. Honsawek S, Parkpian V. Tissueengineering for bone regeneration: stem cells and growth factors in biomaterial scaffolds. Asian Biomed. 2007; 1:229-38.
2. Kokich VG. Maxillary lateral incisor implants: planning with the aid of orthodontics. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004; 62:48-56.
3. Guo H, Su J, Wei J, Kong H, Liu C. Biocompatibility and osteogenicity of degradable Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite scaffolds from calcium phosphate cement for bone tissueengineering. Acta Biomater. 2009; 5
Ondine Lucaciu, Dan Gheban, Olga Soriţau, Mihaela Băciuţ, Radu Septimiu Câmpian and Grigore Băciuţ
1. Stock UA, Vacanti JP. Tissueengineering: current state and prospects. Annu Rev Med. 2001;52:443-51. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.med.52.1.443
2. Vats A, Tolley NS, Polak JM, Gough JE. Scaffolds and biomaterials for tissueengineering: a review of clinical applications. Clin Otolaryngol. 2003;28(3):165-72. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2273.2003.00686.x
3. Burg Kjl, Porter S, Kellam J. Biomaterial developments for bone tissueengineering. Biomaterials. 2000;21(23):2347-59. DOI: 10.1016/S0142
Silicon-substituted calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) was developed in our laboratory as a biomaterial for delivery in bone tissue engineering. It was fabricated as a 3D-construct of scaffolds using chitosan-trisodium polyphosphate (TPP) cross-linked networks. In this study, heparin was covalently bonded to the residual -NH2 groups of chitosan on the scaffold applying carbodiimide chemistry. Bonded heparin was not leached away from scaffold surfaces upon vigorous washing or extended storage. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) was bound to conjugated scaffolds by ionic interactions between the negatively charged SO42- clusters of heparin and positively charged amino acids of rhBMP-2. The resulting scaffolds were inspected for bone regenerative capacity by subcutaneous implanting in rats. Histological observation and mineralization assay were performed after 4 weeks of implantation. Results from both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest the potential of the developed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications in the future.