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. (1996). HIV-1 infection kinetics in tissue cultures, Mathematical Biosciences   138 (1): 1-22. Tam, J. (1999). Delay effect in a model for virus replication, IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied to Medicine and Biology   16 (1): 29-37. Thieme, H. R. (1993). Persistence under relaxed point-dissipativity (with application to an endemic model), SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis   24 (2): 407. van den Driessche, P. and Watmough, J. (2002). Reproduction numbers and sub-threshold endemic equilibria for compartmental models of disease transmission, Mathematical

( Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Delaware using silver thiosulfate (STS). J. Sci. I. Rep. Iran. 12: 103-110. Fish N., Karp A. 1986. Improvements in regeneration from protoplasts of potato and studies on chromosome stability. The effect of initial culture media. Theor. Appl. Genet. 72: 405-412. Hakan T. 2004. The effect of silver nitrate (ethylene inhibitor) on in vitro shoot development in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.). Biotechnology 3: 72-74. Kumar P. P., Lakshmanan P., Thorpe T. A. 1998. Regulation of morphogenesis in plant tissue culture by ethylene. In Vitro

Favarger (Caryophyllaceae) from the western Prealps in Switzerland. Alpine Botany 123, 65–75. Cassells, A. C., 2012: Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests. In: Loyola-Vargas, V. M., Ochoa-Alejo, N. (ed.) Plant cell culture protocols, 57–80. Springer Science+Business Media. New York. Coste, A., Halmagy, A., Buticu-Keul, A. L., Deliu, C., Coldea, G., Hurdu, B. 2012: In vitro propagation and cryopreservation of Romanian endemic and rare Hypericum species. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ

with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15(3): 473-497. Pant B. 2013. Medicinal orchids and their uses: Tissue culture a potential alternative for conservation. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 7(10): 448-467. DOI: 10.5897/AJPS2013.1031. Pant B. 2014. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants. Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine II. Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology 808: 25-39. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1774-9_3. Pant B., Gurung R. 2005. In vitro seed germination and seedling development in Aerides odorata

References Aasim M., Karatas M., Khawar K.M., Dogan M., 2013. Optimization of sterilization and micropropagation of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). J. App. Biol. Sci. 7(3): 71-77. Abdi G., Salehi H., Khosh-Khui M., 2 008. N anosilver: a novel nanomaterial for removal of bacterial contaminants in valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) tissue culture. Acta Physiol. Plant. 30: 709-714. Alves dos Santos M.R., de Oliveira Timbó A.L., Portugal Pinto de Carvalho A.C., Saraiva Morais J.P., 2005. Callus induction and plant regeneration from Anthurium andraeanum Lindl

[sic] through seedling segment (epicotyledonary node). International Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2: 979-989. Joshi H. 2014. Tissue culture studies on Withania coagulans and Punica granatum cv. Bhagava. Industrial Biotechnology M.Sc. Thesis. Sardar Patel University. Mirjalili M.H., Bonfill M., Moyano E., Cusido R.M., Palazón J. 2009. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis thaliana squalene synthase gene in Withania coagulans hairy root cultures increases the biosynthesis of phytosterols and withanolides. New Biotechnology 25: S334. DOI: 10

. Root and Butt Rots (eds M. Johansson, J. Stenlid). Sweden/Finland, August 1993. Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci., Uppsala: 272-273. Nawrot-Chorabik K. 2008. Embryogenic callus induction and differentiation in silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) tissue culture. Dendrobiology , 59: 31-40. Nawrot-Chorabik K. 2009. Somaclonal variation in embryogenic cultures of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.). Plant Biosystems , 143: 377-385. Nyange N.E., Willamson B., McNicol R.J., Hackett C.A. 1995. In vitro screening of coffee genotypes for resistance to coffee berry disease ( Colletotrichum

medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plantarum 1962; 15: 473-497. Murashige T Skoog F A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures Physiol Plantarum 1962 15 473 497 17 Bradford M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976; 72: 248-254. Bradford M A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein-dye binding Anal Biochem 1976 72

revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plantarum 15, 473-497. N eto A.D.A., P risco J.T., E néas -F ilho J., A breu C.E.B., G omes -F ilho E., 2006. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environ. Exp. Bot. 56, 87-94. P etrov V., H ille J., M ueller -R oeber B., G echev T.S., 2015. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants. Front. Plant Sci. 6, 69. P roietti P., N asini L., B uono D

Abstract

Background: The diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) ranges from therapeutic diagnosis to open biopsy with tissue culture. The open biopsies are accepted as the gold standard to diagnose TBLN, but it requires skin incision that leaves unwanted scars. Objective: Test the sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) using tissue culture in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) and tissue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for comparison with open biopsy using tissue culture. Subject and methods: Forty patients with clinically suspected cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis were recruited at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The patients underwent FNA followed by open biopsies either excisional or incisional. Specimens from FNA were collected for tissue culture in MGIT and for tissue PCR. The specimens from open biopsies were divided into two portions for tissue culture in MGIT (the gold standard) and for hispathology. Results: FNA for tissue culture in MGIT had a moderate sensitivity (65%) but high specificity (83%) (73% positive and 76% negative predictive value). FNA for tissue PCR had a moderate sensitivity (53%) but very high specificity (96%) (90% positive and 73% negative predictive values). Combination of either FNA for tissue culture or FNA tissue PCR revealed an increase in sensitivity and specificity to 83.6% and 80.0%, respectively. However, a combination of both FNA for tissue culture and FNA tissue PCR revealed a decrease in sensitivity (34.5%) but a highly increase in specificity (99.0%). Conclusion: Either the FNA using tissue culture in MGIT or tissue PCR had a moderate sensitivity but high specificity. FNA using tissue culture or FNA tissue PCR may be used as an alternative test for diagnosis TBLN. The techniques may replace the open biopsies because of its effectiveness and low complication rate.