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of Blade-tip Sensors to Blade-Vibration Monitoring in Gas Turbines” in: Thermal Power Plants. ISBN 978-953-307-952-3. InTech - Open Access Publisher. Rijeka. Croatia (2011) [6] E. Rokicki, J. Spychala, R. Szczepanik, P. Majewski. “Measuring vibrations of a turbo-machine rotor blade with the help of an induction sensor in high temperature”. US 8125215 B2 (2009). [7] R. Przysowa, J. Spychała, Health Monitoring of Turbomachinery Based on Blade Tip-Timing and Tip-Clearance, RTO-MP-AVT-157-14, 2008 [8] K. Chana Engine Experience of Non-optical Tip Timing Sensors in: Tip

Abstract

Blade Tip Timing (BTT) is a non-intrusive method to measure blade vibration in turbomachinery. Time of Arrival (TOA) is recorded when a blade is passing a stationary sensor. The measurement data, in form of undersampled (aliased) tip-deflection signal, are difficult to analyze with standard signal processing methods like digital filters or Fourier Transform. Several indirect methods are applied to process TOA sequences, such as reconstruction of aliased spectrum and Least-Squares Fitting to harmonic oscillator model. We used standard sine fitting algorithms provided by IEEE-STD-1057 to estimate blade vibration parameters. Blade-tip displacement was simulated in time domain using SDOF model, sampled by stationary sensors and then processed by the sinefit.m toolkit. We evaluated several configurations of different sensor placement, noise level and number of data. Results of the linear sine fitting, performed with the frequency known a priori, were compared with the non-linear ones. Some of non-linear iterations were not convergent. The algorithms and testing results are aimed to be used in analysis of asynchronous blade vibration.

7. References 1. Borowczyk H., Problemy kompleksowego diagnozowania układu łożyskowania turbinowego silnika śmigłowcowego. Wyd. Instytutu Technicznego Wojsk Lotniczych, Warszawa 2011. 2. Borowczyk H., Quasi-informacyjna metoda wyznaczania programu diagnozowania złożonych obiektów technicznych. Military University of Technology, Warszawa 1984. 3. Dimitriadis G., Blade-Tip Timing Measurement Of Synchronous Vibrations Of Rotating Bladed Assemblies. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 16(4), 2002. 4. Heath S., Imregun M., A Survey of Blade Tip-Timing

5. Literatura [1] B. Hayes (chair) “ANSI/ISA-107.1-2013 Industry Standard File Format for Revolution-Based, Tip Timing Data”, www.isa.org [2] R. Przysowa Analysis of synchronous blade vibration with the use of linear sine fitting, Journal of KONBiN, 2(30), pp. 5-20, De Gruyter Open (2014). [3] R. Przysowa “Inductive Sensors for Blade Tip-Timing in Gas Turbines”, Test Cell and Controls Instrumentation and EHM Technologies for Military Air, Land and Sea Turbine Engines, MP-AVT-229-10, Rzeszów (2015) [4] R. Przysowa, P. Gazda “Direct sampling and phase detection of

improved single-parameter tip-timing method for turbomachinery blade vibration measurements using optical laser probes, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 10, 1996. 6. Heinemann T, Becker S.: Axial fan blade vibration assessment under inlet cross-flow conditions using laser scanning vibrometry. Appl Sci. 7(8), 2017, DOI: 10.3390/app7080862. 7. IEEE Standard for Digitizing Waveform Recorders, IEEE Std 1057TM-2007. IEEE 2007. 8. Kaźmierczak K., Przysowa R.: Standard sine fitting algorithms applied to blade tip timing data. Journal of Konbin, Vol. 30

References [1] Grant K. Experimental Testing Of Some Tip-Timing Techniques, 1 st Evi-GTI Conference, Barcelona, 2004. [2] Heath S. Imregun M. An improved single-parameter tip-timing method for turbo-machinery blade vibration measurements using optical laser probes, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 38, №10, 1996, 1047–1058. [3] Heath S. A new technique for identifying synchronous resonances using tip-timing. ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Vol. 122, No. 2. April 2000, 219-225. [4] Heath S. Identification of resonant

Doppler vibrometry: Making light work of vibration measurement. Optics and Lasers in Engineering , 99, 11-22. [4] Tang, J., Soua, S., Mares, C. (2016). An experimental study of acoustic emission methodology for in service condition monitoring of wind turbine blades. Renewable Energy , 99, 170-179. [5] Talbot, J., Wang, Q., Brady, N. (2016). Offshore wind turbine blades measurement using Coherent Laser Radar. Measurement , 79, 53-65. [6] Battiato, G., Firrone, C.M., Berruti, T.M. (2017). Forced response of rotating bladed disks: Blade Tip-Timing measurements

Measurement of Rotor Blade Tip Timing: Development of A New Method Based on Integration , ASME Turbo Expo 2016, ASME Paper GT2016-57368, 2016. [9] Christodoulou, L., Larsen, J. M., Materials Damage Prognosis: A Revolution in Asset Management, Materials Damage Prognosis , J. M. Larsen et al. (ed.), TMS, pp. 3-10. 2005. [10] Dimitriadis, G., et al., Blade-Tip Timing Measurement of Synchronous Vibrations of Rotating Bladed Assemblies , Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 599-622. 2002. [11] Haase, W. C., Drumm, M. J., Detection, Discrimination and

References [1] Boyce M.P.: Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2002 [2] Dimitriadis G., Carrington I.B., Wright J.R., Cooper J.E.: Blade Tip-Timing Measurement of Synchronous Vibrations of Rotating Bladed Assemblies, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2002 [3] Gallego-Garrido J., Dimitriadis G., Wright J.R.: Development of a Multiple Modes Simulator of Rotating Bladed Assemblies for Tip-Timing Data Analysis, Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, 2002 [4] LabVIEW Manual: LabVIEW

of Blade Vibration Monitoring . RTO-MP-AVT -121 Meeting Proceedings, NATO, paper 2. Duan, F., Fang, Z., Sun, Y. & Ye, S. (2005). Real-time Vibration Measurement Technique Based on Tip-timing for Rotating Blades. Opto-Electronic Engineering . 30(1), 29-31. Ayes, B.W., Arnold, S., Vining, Ch. & Howard, R. (2005). Application of Generation 4 Non-contact Stress Measurement System on HCF Demonstrator Engines. Proc. of 10 th National Turbine Engine High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) Conference. Dayton, USA. http://www.agilismeasurementsystems.com Brouckaert, J.F. (editor). Tip