Jurandir Baptista da Silva, Vicente Pinheiro Lima, Gabriel Andrade Paz, Caroline Reis de Oliveira, Francisco D’urso, Rodolfo de Alkmim Moreira Nunes, Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro and Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale
. Brentano M.A., E.L. Cadore, E.M. Silva, R.F. Silva, L.F.M. Kruel (2008) Maximal strength estimation in resistance training exercises based on anthropometric parameters of physically active men and women. Braz. J. Biomotricity, 2: 294-301.
7. Burd N.A., R.J. Andrews, D.W. West, J.P. Little, A.J. Cochran, A.J. Hector, J.G.A. Cashaback, M.J. Gibala, R. Potvin, S.K. Baker, S.M. Phillips (2012) Muscle timeundertension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses in men. J. Physiol., 590: 351-362. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol
Michal Wilk, Artur Golas, Petr Stastny, Monika Nawrocka, Michal Krzysztofik and Adam Zajac
). The number of repetitions performed at a specific tempo impacts total timeundertension in a set (TUT set ). TUT provides accurate information about the duration of resistance effort for a set, and in the whole training session (TUT sum ). With a slow movement tempo, especially 5/0/5/0 or even extremely slow 10/0/10/10, performance of a lower number of repetitions in a set takes longer and has longer TUT than for a faster tempo with a higher number of repetitions. In this situation, determination of exercise volume using the number of performed repetitions is not
Michal Wilk, Mariola Gepfert, Michal Krzysztofik, Artur Golas, Aleksandra Mostowik, Adam Maszczyk and Adam Zajac
standardized method of assigning these digits within the scientific literature, in this paper we adopted a unified description of the movement tempo as follows: eccentric / pause / concentric / pause. Change in the movement tempo during a strength exercise impacts on the value of exercise volume, the level of generated force, power output, and hypertrophy ( Hatfield et al., 2006 ; Headley et al., 2011 ; Sakamoto and Sinclair, 2006 ; Wilk et al., 2018a ).
The number of repetitions performed at a specific tempo influences the total timeundertension in a set (TUT) as
Gavin L. Moir, Bruce W. Graham, Shala E. Davis, John J. Guers and Chad A. Witmer
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different configurations of repetitions within a set of deadlifts on the mechanical variables of concentric force, concentric time under tension, impulse, work, power, and fatigue. Eleven resistance trained men (age: 21.9 ± 1.0 years; deadlift 1 repetition maximum: 183.2 ± 38.3 kg) performed four repetitions of the deadlift exercise with a load equivalent to 90% of 1 repetition maximum under three different set configurations: Traditional (continuous repetitions); Doubles cluster (repetitions 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 performed continuously with a 30 s rest inserted between repetitions 2 and 3); Singles cluster (30 s rest provided between repetitions). The order of the sessions was counterbalanced across the subjects and the mechanical variables were calculated during each repetition from the synchronized signals recorded from force platforms and a motion analysis system. Relative to the Traditional set, the insertion of rest periods in the cluster set configurations resulted in greater time under tension (p < 0.001) and therefore, greater impulse (p < 0.001) during the repetitions. Reductions in power were observed during the cluster sets compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.001). The Doubles cluster set resulted in greater fatigue scores for power compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.04). The influence of cluster sets on mechanical variables appears to be mediated by the mechanical characteristics of the exercise (i.e. stretch-shortening cycle) and the competing physiological mechanisms of fatigue and potentiation.
failure. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab , 2011; 36: 115-120
Scott CB. The effect of time-under-tension and weight lifting cadence on aerobic, anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure: 3 submaximal sets. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab , 2012; 37: 252-256
Scott CB. Oxygen costs peak after resistance exercise sets: a rationale for the importance of recovery over exercise. J Exer Physiolonline , 2012; 15: 1-8
Steudel-Numbers KL, Wall-Scheffler CM. Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies. J Human Evol
James J. Tufano, Jenny A. Conlon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E. Brown, Alex Petkovic, Justin Frick and G. Gregory Haff
set of four individual repetitions with 30 s of inter-repetition rest, and a cluster set of four repetitions with 30 s of intra-set rest after every two repetitions. The authors concluded that the additional rest periods during cluster sets had a negative effect on power output and culminated in greater concentric timeundertension compared to the traditional set ( Moir et al., 2013 ). A lack of peak force data does not allow for a direct comparison with the present study, but an increase in timeundertension (and a hypothesized decrease in movement velocity
Alex S. Ribeiro, João Pedro Nunes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Andreo F. Aguiar and Edilson S. Cyrino
each set by 2-4 kg for upper body exercises and 4-10 kg for lower body exercises. The number of repetitions per set was higher for exercises of the wrist and calves (15-20 RM), and the abdominals (150 to 300 repetitions per session). The greater volume of repetitions for the wrist, calves and abdominals was based on the premise that these muscles are more endurance-oriented and thus need a greater timeundertension to maximize muscular development. Participants were instructed to perform each repetition with a velocity of 1 and 2 s in the concentric and eccentric
Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Mariola Gepfert, Stanislaw Poprzecki, Artur Gołaś and Adam Maszczyk
., 2012b ), and increased recruitment of fast twitch muscle fibres ( Manimmanakorn et al., 2013b ; Takarada et al., 2000a ). These responses are interdependent and may provide a theoretical explanation for the patterns of neuromuscular adaptations accompanying RT-BFR. Furthermore, the use of BFR during RT leads to decreased exercise volume determined according to the guidelines of Wilk et al. (2018) based on timeundertension ( Wernbom et al., 2009 ). It should also be mentioned that RT-BFR (LL) reduces the expression of the myostatin gene (45%) in a way comparable