therapeutic efficacy of thymol in murine cystic echinococcosis. Parasitol Int. 2015, 64(5):435-40. 14. Kaplan RM, Storey BE, Vidyashankar AN, Bissinger BW, Mitchell SM, Howell SB, Mason ME, Lee MD, Pedroso AA, Akashe A, Skrypec DJ: Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs. Acta Trop. 2014, 139:15-22. 15. Willis HH: A simple levitation method for the detection of hookworm ova. Med J. 1921, 29:375-376. 16. Lei J, Leser M, Enan E: Nematicidal activity of two monoterpenoids and SER-2 tyramine receptor of Caenorhabditis
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Thymus fedtschenkoi Ronniger (Lamiaceae) is a permanent, that grows in some mountain rangelands of Iran, including Mazandaran province. The aerial parts of Thymus fedtschenkoi were collected during flowering stage in June 2012, from mountain rangelands of Mazandaran province, in north of Iran. Samples were collected from five altitudes (1300 m, 1600 m, 2000 m, 2400 m and 3000 m) in mountain region of Mazandaran province. The goal of current research was to assessment the effect of altitude on the chemical composition and function of essential oil in Thymus fedtschenkoi. The essential oil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results, the essential oil content is between 0.92-1.31%, at different altitudes. The highest content of essential oil (1.31%%) was extracted in the highest altitude (3000 m), while it was opposite (0.92%) in the lowest altitude (1300 m). The main essential oil compounds of Thymus fedtschenkoi samples were thymol (8.62%-36.86%), carvacrol (6.787%-68.39%), γ-terpinene (1.473T-6.461%), p-cymen (5.764%-16.204%) and linalool (0.465%-6.457 6.8%). According to the results, altitude has a positive effect on the percentage of essential oils and essential oil increases with increasing altitude. The altitude has a negative effect on the percentage of thymol and the content of thymol decreased with increasing altitude. The altitude has a positive effect on the percentage of carvacrol and the content of carvacrol increased with increasing altitude.
Thymus trauvetteri Klokov & Desj. (Lamiaceae) is a permanent species that grows in some mountain rangeland of Iran including Mazandaran province. The aerial parts of Thymus trauvetteri were collected during flowering stage in June 2014, from mountain rangelands of Mazandaran province,in North of Iran. Around samples collected from four altitudes (2100 m, 2400 m, 2700 m and 3000 m) in mountain region of Mazandaran province. The goal of current research was to assess the effect of altitude on the chemical composition and function of essential oil in Thymus trauvetteri. The essential oil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results, the essential oil content is between 1.01-1.51% at different altitudes. The highest essential oil (1.51%%) was extracted at an altitude of 2400 m, while it was opposite (1.01%) at an altitude of 3000 m. The main compounds essential oil of Thymus trauvetteri samples were identified: thymol (5.93%-49.75%), carvacrol (1.78%-54.02%), and p-cymen (6.98%-19.07%). According to the results, altitude was significantly (p≤ 0.05) effective on essential oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymen rates according to results of correlation analysis. The highest percentage of essential oil is at an altitude of 2400 m and the lowest is 3000 m above sea level. The highest percentage of thymol is in L3 (2700 m) and lowest is in L1 (2100 m). The highest percentage of carvacrol is in L3 (2700 m) and lowest is in L4 (3000 m). The highest percentage of p-cymen is in L1, L2, L3 (2100, 2400 and 2700 m, no significant difference) and lowest is in L4 (3000 m). Variations in essential oil rates and compositions may be due to on genetic, ecological or individual variability.
The study was aimed at determining the chemical composition, toxicity effect and field varroacidal efficacy of the essential oil distilled from the leaf of Eucalyptus globulus (Eg) grown in Algeria. Brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay and bee hives infected by Varroa destructor were used to assess the toxicity and acaricidal effect, respectively. Steam distillation of leaves yielded 0.93 % (v/w) of essential oil (EO). GC/MS Analysis revealed 39 compounds, essentially oxygenated monoterpenes (86.01%). The main constituents of the oil were 1,8-cineole (78.45 %), o-cymene (2.18 %), isopinocarveole (1.74 %), α-pinene (1.69 %), pinocarvone (1.34%) and veridiflorol (1.31%). The BSL assay revealed a highly toxic value of LC50 (67.55 μg/mL). Furthermore, field efficacy testing on bee hives infected with Varroa destructor has confirmed the effectiveness of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EgEO) or thymol as varroacidal agents. Moreover, a EgEO + thymol association was more effective than EgEO or thymol alone. Finally, the use of EgEO + thymol may constitute a viable alternative to the thymol-based commercial treatment
Introduction: In Iranian traditional medicine, Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae family) is reputed due to its antiseptic effects. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm killing effects of Z. multiflora essential oil and main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The main components of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial properties of Z. multiflora oil and main components were determined by assessing the MIC and MBC values, and their inhibition percent of biofilm killing effects were determined by the evaluation of optical density. The role of each main component in these activities was determined according to the chemical profiles of essential oil. Results: Thymol (38.7%), carvacrol (30.6%), and p-cymene (8.3%) were main components of twenty five components of essential oil. Carvacrol had the higher role in antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, followed by thymol. P-cymene enhanced the antibacterial activities of thymol and carvacrol against P. aeruginosa. Carvacrol showed the weak role in biofilm killing effect. In spite of the low antibacterial activity of p-cymene against P. aeruginosa, it can enhance the antibacterial activity of thymol or carvacrol. Conclusion: Z. multiflora essential oil can be used for the management of P. aeruginosa infections. Determining the precise role of each components needs investigating in their behavior in different media.
content and composition of Origanum vulgare L. populations from a north Mediterranean area (Liguria Region, northern Italy). Annal Botan 2000;86:471-8. doi: 10.1006/anbo.2000.1205 17. Vazquez Beatriz I, Fente C, Franco CM, Vazquez MJ, Cepeda A. Inhibitory effects of eugenol and thymol on Penicillium citrinum strains in culture media and cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 2001;67:157-63. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00429-9 18. Sokolić-Mihalak D, Frece J, Slavica A, Delaš F, Pavlović H, Markov K. The effects of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) essential oil components against
.1080/00218839.1998.11100956 Bogdanov, S., Kilchenmann, V., Imdorf, A., & Fluri, P. (1998 b). Residues in honey after application of thymol against Varroa using the Frakno Thymol Frame. American Bee Journal (USA), 138: 610-611. Bogdanov, S., Kilchenmann, V., Fluri, P., Bühler, U., Lavanchy, P. (1999). Influence of organic acids and components of essential oils on honey taste. American Bee Journal, 139(1), 61-63. Bustos, M., Flores, J. M., Puerta, F., Ruiz, J. A., Ruz, J. M. (2000). Situación actual de la parasitosis por Varroa. MG Mundo ganadero, (120), 49-51. Calderone, N. W. (1999). Evaluation of