Today, the state, its organizations and its citizens have become vulnerable to the complexity of complex electronic information systems in the cyberspace of Hungary, without which state operations and the provision and use of different services become unworkable. In addition to the modern economic system, society is not prepared to operate without lost infrastructure, assets or services, so they must clearly be protected especially because the information used and generated in their operation and the data managed represent significant assets.
Migration has existed since the beginning of mankind. The phenomenon has not been ceased in time, but it has changed and acquired new forms. Migration processes are conducted simultaneously and they are increasing in many countries. One of the long term results of this development could be the emergence of multicultural societies, tending towards new concepts of citizenship or national state. Most of the developed countries have become diversified and multiethnic societies, and those who have not reached this level yet, have turned decisively in this direction.
The social consequences of migration are as important as its influence on the economy. The regulation of the migration processes supposes the application of legal, administrative and socio-economic measures that are aimed to stimulate or limit the migration of population in or from the country, to ensure the respect of the migrants’ rights, to fight against both the illegal migration and illicit trafficking in human beings.
The paper discusses the role of e-portfolio in the development of reflective thinking in a group of pre-service English as a foreign language teachers. It stresses the benefits it can bring (e.g. autonomous learning, cooperative learning - the author highlights the social context of e-portfolio) as well as presents the threats and risks it might bring based on the own experience of the author. The results of this case study showed that the process of e-portfolio building can enhance professional development, self-confidence and the ability to self-reflect own work and progress. The author indicates also the possibilities of its use not only in the groups of pre-service teacher trainers but also in the groups of in-service teachers.
Occupational health and safety legislation imposes an obligation on the production organization to regularly and comprehensibly inform employees of the dangers, threats and risks involved. In the paper, we assessed the basic requirements of safety in the wood processing workshop on the forming disc saw. Deficiencies in non-compliance with security regulations were determined from the check list analysis (CLA). The safety assessment was performed using the extended point method, where we determined the value of the risk measure. When working on a saw blade, the risk cannot be accepted and safety precautions have to be proposed. For the production organization, we have proposed remedial measures and a safety card to be considered before working on forming disc saw. All the measures proposed by us were accepted and implemented by the production organization. Applying and observing safety measures can prevent the occurrence of an occupational injury or damage to the health of the worker.
Being one of the core values of the European Union, human rights have been centrally located in the European Union-Turkey relations especially since the country gained the candidate status in 1999. In human rights practices, the actor who comes to the forefront most on behalf of the state against the citizens whose rights must be protected is the police force. Therefore, the security practices enforced by the police form a huge part of human rights practices in the state and thus play a decisive role in Turkey’s relations with the Union. This article presents an evaluation of the so-called ‘internal security package’, which has just passed into law, and its potential impact on European Union-Turkey relations. The package includes specific amendments regarding the police duties and authorities, which unarguably affect human rights practices in the country. As the Union lacks a uniform norm relating to the security practices the package in question contains, the answer to the question will be sought by screening two sources: EU progress reports on Turkey and relevant ECtHR decisions, which provide definite judgements regarding the threats and risks posed by the package under discussion.
Today several nations utilise risk based approaches in military planning. However, the discussion on limitations with the approaches in regard to aspects such as uncertainties, the nature of the threat and risk to civilians is limited.
The aim of this work is to identify important challenges when applying risk based approaches to military activity. This article discusses risk based approaches in general and their military applications. Five generic quality requirements on risk analysis are presented from research in risk philosophy. Two military application areas for risk analysis: military intelligence, and risk management in legal assessments are analysed in relation to the presented quality requirements on risk analysis.
From the analysis it is clear that risk analysis is an integral part of the decision-making analysis and cannot be separated in time, space or organisationally from the decision-making process in general. Defining the scenario to analyse, including the time span, is a central task in risk analysis and will affect every aspect of the risk estimation. Therefore, the principles for scenario definition must be communicated and continuously updated throughout the organisation. Handling the uncertainties throughout the process is also important, especially if the aim is a resilient military system.
Even though the proportion of wind farm victims compared to general bird species mortality is relatively low, there is necessity to limit direct and indirect losses to the bird populations caused by this kind of human activity. Estimation of threats to the birds resulting from building of wind farms is a very difficult task and it must take into account several constrains. The basic task is to build farms in localities that are the safest to birds. This can be achieved by pre-investment monitoring and direct observations at the spot and then evaluation of potential threats and risks. Field methods typical for the studies on bird populations are usually applied in such monitoring. The procedure described below includes four steps: screening (starts the process and sets preliminary constrains of the location), monitoring (standardised data are collected at the location), estimations of potential collision risk and evaluation of the location.
The key parameters determining collision risk of bird species are: (1) the number of individuals utilising the monitored area in different seasons, (2) air space utilization (height and directions of flights), as well as (3) characteristics of the species behaviour. The starting data set contains: species name, number of individuals, height of flight (three layers - below, in, above the rotor), and distance from the observer. The final estimation of the collision index (the most probable number of collisions per turbine a year) is based on (1) estimation of the total number of individuals that use the defined area during a year and (2) estimation of probability that the individual will collide. In the latter (i.e. 2) the most important is that birds can actively avoid passing through the rotor swept (active avoidance rate) and that even birds, which crossed the rotor swept area not necessarily will be killed. Calculations are performed for each species separately and then are summarised to get the farm index as well as season indices. Some values of indices for raptors studied at 76 localities in Poland are given in the table. The final evaluation of the site is made as shown in a parametric analysis table, discussion of cumulative and barrier effects and the discussion of species specific risk to species of high conservation concern.
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