Significance of protection of the meadow and grassland communities for maintenance the floristic diversity in the area of the south-eastern Silesian Upland (Poland)
Variety of relief and geology of the south-eastern Silesian Upland results in richness and diversity of its vegetation. Wet meadows and xerothermic grasslands are one of its most valuable components. In their phytocoenoses many protected (27 in meadows and 22 in grasslands) and rare (25 and 34) species have been noted. Among them there are threatened species put on the "Red list of the vascular plants in Poland". A few species represent the mountain element. Some meadow and grassland phytocoenoses from the south-eastern part of the Silesian Upland are characterised by exceptionally high floristic richness. The Cirsietum rivularis patches have proved to be the richest among them. Large-scale cessation of usage caused that meadows and grasslands actually need urgent active protection here. This is the only chance of survival for many rare protected and threatened plants.
Basic patterns of most priority biodiversity areas of Kosovo that shall be considered for conservation studies are offered here. On this work, all plant taxa that are included in the Kosovarian Red list are analysed and their analogy is interpreted to conservation priority hotspots. Kosovo represents an important centre for Balkan biodiversity; therefore a quantitative evaluation of the importance of different priority areas for conserving plant diversity of Kosovo is very much needed. This study provides a detailed quantitative approach concerning the identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation, using threatened and endangered plant taxa in well-known grid squares system. Used grid squares (20 × 20 km) were classified into four different groups in terms of their conservation importance. Valuation factors taken into account are IUCN based risk category, endemism as well as ecological and distributional attributes. The results indicated that there are four grid squares – D4 (0.4300), G7 (0.3910), G8 (0.2750) and E4 (0.2860), that have remarkable conservation importance. These grid squares are all located along mostly high-elevation areas of two National Parks in Kosovo. These national scale data should prove to be very appropriate and easy to follow evidence for environmental decision-making bodies as well as be used for further research.
Ecological and sociological spectrum of Ostericum palustre at new localities in central Poland
The paper presents new data on the distribution of Ostericum palustre (a strictly protected vulnerable species) in central Poland. In the period of 2008-2009, new population of this species were found in the north-eastern part of Łódź Province. Ostericum palustre was present in the described localities in meadow, herb, peat bog and reed bed communities. The species was most numerous in well preserved purple moor-grass meadows. New localities of Ostericum palustre described in the article are instrumental in the protection of this species in central Poland.
Populations of Bouché’s star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum boucheanum (Kunth) Asch., fam. Hyacinthaceae) were recorded on Bansko Hill (Baranja, Croatia) in 2007. Since this species has not been previously confirmed in Croatia, it should be treated as a new taxon in the country and included in the Flora Croatica Database. In this paper we present a short morphological description of O. boucheanum and diagnostic morphological characters for differentiation from the related O. nutans L. We suggested O. boucheanum be evaluated as a critically endangered (CR) species of the Croatian flora, considering the small number of individuals and the small extension of its population. The recording of its populations on the edge of the loess cliff in Bansko Hill a part of which belongs to the Important Plant Area and Natura 2000, confirms the significance of this unique habitat in preserving rare and endangered plants.
Among the 2750 species of the Polish vascular flora, about 500 species are threatened with extinction and 430 of them are strictly protected by national law. The FlorNatur project for the ex situ conservation of the most endangered species was started in 2009. The aim of the project is to collect seeds of 61 species from 161 sites in eastern Poland and store them in the Seed Bank of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation in Warsaw- Powsin. A complementary program is being carried out by the Forestry Gene Bank at Kostrzyca in western Poland. Their task is to collect 58 species from 129 natural sites in the western part of Poland. To date, seeds of 31 species from 56 populations have been collected, tested and stored in liquid nitrogen.
second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 208–904 pp. Volis, S. 2016: How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations? Plant Diversity 1: 1–11. Walter, K. S. & Gillett H. J. (eds.) 1998: 1997 IUCN Red List of ThreatenedPlants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ixiv + 862 pp. Wilcove, D.S., Rothstein, D., Dubow, J., Phillips, A. & Losos, E. 1998: Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States: assessing the
The paper presents data on the occurrence and secondary spreading of rare and threatened vascular plant species in railway habitats of Slovakia. We recorded 17 threatened vascular plant species and other 9 species that we considered to be rare in Slovakia. They grew at railway stations, mainly directly in the rail yard and also at the platforms or other similar facilities. Records of further 39 species were excerpted from literature sources. More native thermophilous species were represented among the recorded species as railway substrates provide suitable conditions for their growth. Also some archaeophytic segetal species were found quite frequent in the studied biotopes due to spreading of their seeds together with cereals transported by trains. Various habitats of railway transport facilities often provide suitable conditions for the secondary occurrence and further spreading not only of synanthropic or adventive, but also of rare and threatened plant species.
Distribution patterns, history, and dynamics of peatland vascular plants in Pomerania (NW Poland)
Pomerania is rich in various peatlands (fens, transitional bogs, raised bogs, spring-water mires, etc.), which support many rare and threatened plant species. This study was aimed: (1) to determine the phytogeographic diversity of Pomeranian peatland vascular plants associated with the classes Oxycocco-Sphagnetea and Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae; (2) to attempt a reconstruction of the history of their postglacial migrations; and (3) to assess the dynamic trends of selected species. A database of records of 83 Pomeranian peatland plants was created, and cartograms of their distribution in Pomerania were made. Each taxon was briefly described, considering its distribution, phytocoenotic spectrum, and biological properties (e.g. pollination mode, diaspores dispersal). The phytogeographic analysis took into account geographic and directional elements, as well as mountain species found in Pomeranian peatlands. The plants' potential for colonization of new sites was assessed on the basis of Raunkiaer's life forms, modes of pollination and seed dispersal, and types of life strategies. As a result of numerical analysis and visual comparison of cartograms, 5 regional distributional types were distinguished: western, northern, eastern, all-Pomeranian, and disjunct. Within the eastern and all-Pomeranian types, which showed internal variation, several subtypes were distinguished. Most of the considered climatic variables (growing season length, temperature, and precipitation variables) were found to affect significantly the floristic variation of Pomeranian peatlands. The available palaeobotanical, palaeoclimatic, palaeoecological, and phytogeographic data, as well as original field research on the distribution of the taxa, allowed the formulation of hypotheses on the time and directions of their migration into Pomerania. Moreover, dynamic trends of selected species are analysed, and the decline of many peatland plant species in Pomerania is discussed.
): Czerwona lista mchów zagrożonych w Polsce. [Red list of threatened mosses in Poland]. In Zarzycki K., Wojewoda W. & Heinrich Z. (eds.), Lista roślin zagrożonych w Polsce. Wyd. 2 [List of threatenedplants in Poland. 2nd ed.]. Instytut Botaniki im. W. Szafera Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Kraków: pp. 79-85. Plášek V. (2004): The moss Buxbaumia viridis (Bryopsida, Buxbaumiaceae) in the Czech part of the Western Carpathians - distribution and ecology. In: Stebel A. & Ochyra R. (eds) Bryological Studies in the Western Carpathians, Sorus, Poznań: pp. 37-44. Soldán Z. (1992
plants of India. 334 pp. BSI, Howrah. Jain S. K. & Sastry A. R. K. 1980. An assessment of the threatenedplants of India: A State-of the art Report. 45 pp. New Delhi. Khoshoo T. N. 1996. Biodiversity in the Indian Himalayas: Conservation and Utilization. In: P. Sheggi (ed.). Banking on Biodiversity, 181-256 pp. Kathmandu, ICIMOD. Mittermeier R. A., Robles Gil P., Hoffman M., Pilgrim J., Brooks T., Mitt emeier C. G., Lamoreux J., & da Fonseca G. A. B. (eds.). 2004. Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Threatened Terrestrial Ecoregions. 396 pp. CEMEX