Milan Grundmann, Ivana Kacirova and Romana Urinovska
dopamine receptor occupancy in patients treated with classical neuroleptics and clozapine. Relation to extrapyramidal side effects, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 49 (1992) 538-544.
13. S. Nyberg, A. L. Nordström, C. Halldin and L. Farde, Positron emission tomography studies on D2 dopamine receptor occupancy and plasma antipsychotic drug levels in man, Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 10 (Suppl. 3) (1995) 81-85.
14. P. J. Perry, Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of atypical antipsychotics. Is it of potential clinical value? CNS Drugs 13 (2000) 167
There are limitations regarding the use of therapeuticdrugmonitoring and therefore, it is still not employed routinely in our daily practice. In Hong Kong, tests for monitoring rheumatic drugs are not available. Furthermore, the therapeutic window of each drug has yet to be confirmed by larger clinical trials in order to define a universally accepted window for each rheumatic drug.
Therapeuticdrugmonitoring may be helpful in enhancing drug efficacy and in reducing toxicities. It can also allow the detection of drug non
Andreea Varga, Răzvan Constantin Șerban, Daniela Lucia Muntean, Cristina Maria Tătar, Lenard Farczadi and Ioan Tilea
A rapid, sensitive, high-throughput liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of rivaroxaban from human plasma has been developed and validated. For the analytical separation a Zorbax SB-C18 column with isocratic flow of mobile phase composed of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitril (65:35, V/V) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min at a temperature of 45ºC was used. Detection of rivaroxaban was performed using positive electrospray ionization and MS/MS mode (sum of m/z 231.1; 289.2 and 318.2 from m/z 436.3). Plasma samples were prepared using single-step protein precipitation with methanol. Method validation was performed with regards to selectivity, linearity (r >0.9927), within-run and between-run precision (CV< 13.1 %) and accuracy (bias< 9.4 %) over a concentration range of 24.00 - 960.00 ng/mL plasma. Recovery was between 96.5 - 108.5% and the lower limit of quantification of rivaroxaban was 24.00 ng/mL. The developed method is simple, rapid, and selective, requires small plasma sample volumes, and was successfully applied for therapeutic drug monitoring of rivaroxaban in treated patients.
Dan Andonie, Zsolt Gáll, Paul Bosa, Maria Titica Dogaru and Szende Vancea
, Berry DJ, Bourgeois BFD, et al. Antiepileptic drugs - Best practice guidelines for therapeuticdrugmonitoring: A position paper by the subcommission on therapeuticdrugmonitoring, ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia . 2008;49:1239-1276.
6. Johannessen SI, Battino D, Berry DJ, et al. Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of the newer antiepileptic drugs. Ther Drug Monit . 2003;25:347-363.
7. Neels HM, Sierens AC, Naelaerts K, Scharpé SL, Hatfield GM, Lambert WE. Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of old and newer anti-epileptic drugs. Vol. 42, Clinical
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ROBERTS, J., A. - PATERSON, D., L.- MARTIN, J., H.: Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of antimicrobials. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 73, 1, 2012, p. 27 - 36.
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M. Göböová, I. Vaňo, V. Kissová, T. Fazekaš and M. Kuželová
-System Pharmacist. 2011;68(7): 624–632.
 Fonzo-Christie C, Guignard B, Zaugg C et al.: Impact of clinical Decision Support Guidelines on TherapeuticDrugMonitoring of Gentamicin in Newborns. Ther Drug Monit. 2014;36(5):656–662.
 Barza M, Ioannidis JP, Cappelleri JC, Lau J et al.: Single and multiple daily doses of aminoglycosides a meta-analysis. BMJ. 1996;10(312):338–345.
 Nezic L, Derungs A, Bruggisser M, Tschudin-Sutter S, Krähenbühl S, Haschke M: Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of once daily aminoglycoside dosing: comparison of two methods and
Stoica Ciprian Mihai, Căldăraru Carmen Denise, Vari Camil Eugen, Tarţa Dorin Ionuţ, Dogaru Maria Titica, Caraşca Emilian and Dogaru Grigore Aloiziu
1. Venkataraman L, Burakoff SJ, Sen R. FK-506 inhibits antigen receptor-mediated induction of C-rel in B and T lymphoid cells. J Exp Med. 1995;181:1091-1099.
2. Plosker GL, Foster RH. Tacrolimus: a further update of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in the management of organ transplantation. Drugs. 2000;59:323-389.
3. Kang JS, Lee MH. Overview of therapeuticdrugmonitoring. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. 2009;24:1-10.
4. Wong G, Howard K, Chapman JR, Chadban S et al. Comparative survival and economic benefits of
Bojana Golubović, Katarina Vučićević, Dragana Radivojević, Sandra Vezmar Kovačević, Milica Prostran and Branislava Miljković
narrow therapeutic index of sirolimus, therapeuticdrugmonitoring and dose individualization are necessary ( 1 , 5 ). Therefore, TDM and detailed biochemical and clinical monitoring represent the cornerstone of the transplant patients’care. Finding, explaining and quantifying the potential factors of pharmaco kinetic variability in individual patient would make dose individualization more effective. Population approach could enable this.
Numerous sources of pharmacokinetic variability have been recognized in the conventional pharmacokinetic studies of sirolimus ( 8
Maria Goboova, Magdalena Kuzelova, Viera Kissova, Dasa Bodakova and Elena Martisova
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a recently reported condition in pathophysiology of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. ARC refers to the enhanced renal elimination of circulating solutes. These patients are either young or previously healthy people who have undergone surgery or multiple trauma.
This case report describes an adjustment of dosing regime of vancomycin to a young patient, who demonstrated ARC with severe polytrauma, overcome crush syndrome and sepsis. This 16-year old male patient was crushed by a tractor, which caused severe tissue damaged in the right lower limb. He gradually developed a serious crush syndrome. When kidneys resumed their function, creatinine clearance reached the value that indicated ARC (339.81 mL/min/1.73 m2). Vancomycin was included in the patient’s treatment regime by administering conventional dose of 1 g per 12 hours. The residual measured levels were very low. The dose of vancomycin had to be adjusted to double and then to triple the conventional dose. Without the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and subsequent interpretation of the results by the clinical pharmacists, such high doses would not have been considered for administration.
ARC responds strongly to sub-therapeutic serum vancomycin levels. Our case report confirms the significance of TDM and the consecutive interpretation of the results in critically ill patients.
Cristiano Ialongo, Alessia Francesca Mozzi and Sergio Bernardini
1. Lucarelli G, Isgro A, Sodani P, Gaziev J. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2012; 2: a011825.
2. Russell JA, Kangarloo SB. Therapeuticdrugmonitoring of busulfan in transplantation. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14: 1936-49.
3. Iwamoto T, Hiraku Y, Oikawa S, Mizutani H, Kojima M, Kawanishi S. DNA intrastrand cross-link at the 5’-GA-3’ sequence formed by busulfan and its role in the cytotoxic effect. Cancer Sci 2004; 95: 454