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Securitization of the Migration Crisis and Islamophobic Rhetoric: The 2016 Slovak Parliamentary Elections as a Case Study

policy discourse, which is analyzed here. First, I present the research design of my paper (research methods and research question; sources of data) and after that I turn to the basic theoretical framework of this paper: theory of securitization. Finally, I reflect the key point of this theory – speech act. I will not reflect all speech acts in political or societal discourse but focus on those that manifested anti-Muslim rhetoric. Lastly, in the analytical part of my paper, I will introduce my findings about the characteristics of securitization of Islamophobia during

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Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

‘Global War on Terrorism,” Global Research: Center for Research on Globalization (CRG), Montréal, QC. SAPOLSKY, H. M., GHOLZ, E. & KAUFMAN, A. (1999). “Security Lessons from the Cold War,” Foreign Affairs, 78(4): 77-89. SOBLIC, J. P. (2009). US vs. Them: Conservatism in the Age of Nuclear Terror. London, UK: Penguin Books. STRITZEL, H. (2007). “Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond,” European Journal of International Relations, 13(3): 357-83. TARDY, T. & WINDMAR, E. (2003). “The EU and Peace Operations,” Proceedings of a

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Subjective Security in a Volatile Geopolitical Situation: Does Lithuanian Society Feel Safe?

Abstract

The geopolitical situation of Lithuania has deteriorated since the annexation of Crimea and the military conflict in Eastern Ukraine. It has affected the objective security of the state as well as subjective security of the Lithuanian population. This article analyses subjective security and deals with the subjective perception of geopolitical and military threats, mainly social attitudes towards national security and the willingness to defend the country. Article is based on theories of securitisation and human security and holds that individuals are the primary referents of security. Empirically, the article relies on the original data of the research project “Subjective Security in a Volatile Geopolitical Context: Traits, Factors and Individual Strategies”, funded by the Research Council of Lithuania. Article shows the dynamics of social attitudes towards security. Over the last 15 years, a clear shift towards the understanding of potential military threats has occurred. Nevertheless, the predominant concern about individual security, overshadowing security of the state and security of the global order, found in previous studies, has persisted. An individual, as a rule, feels most secure in his/her “closest” environment, e.g. family and friends, and least secure in the “farthest” environment, e.g. other continents.

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Estonia’s comprehensive approach to national defence: origins and dilemmas

concept of security. Review of International Studies, Vol. 23, pp. 5–26. https://www.princeton.edu/~dbaldwin/selected%20articles/Baldwin%20(1997)%20The%20Concept%20of%20Security.pdf Balzacq, T. (2011): A theory of securitization. In Balzacq, T. (ed.) Securitization Theory – How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve. New York: Routledge. Buzan, B. (1983): People, States and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press; Buzan, B. (1991a). People, States and Fear: An Agenda for

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Balancing Between Solidarity and Responsibility: Estonia in the EU Refugee Crisis

_ja_rahvastiku_koosseis.asp Šulovic, V. (2010). Meaning of Security and Theory of Securitization. Belgrade Centre for Security Policy. Published on October 5th, 2010, available: http://www.bezbednost.org/upload/document/sulovic_%282010%29_meaning_of_secu.pdf The Baltic Course (2015). Latvia and Estonia to oppose EU refugee quota system. Published on May 12th, 2015, available: http://www.balticcourse.com/eng/legislation/?doc=106034 The Baltic Times (2015). Estonian NGOs gear up for refugee intake (ed. Monika Hanley and Donna Doerbeck). Published on September 2nd

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Japanese and South Korean Official Development Assistance (ODA): A Comparative Analysis of Rhetoric and Behaviour

Stritzel, Holger. “Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond.” In European Journal of International Relations, 13/3, 2007, pp. 357-383 Thiele, Rainer, Peter Nunnenkamp, and Axel Dreher. “Do Donors Target Aid in Line with the Millennium Development Goals? A Sector Perspective of Aid Allocation.” In Review of World Economics, 143/4, 2007, pp. 596-630 Tuman, John P. and Ayoub S. Ayoub. “The Determinants of Japanese Official Development Assistance in Africa: A Pooled Time Series Analysis.” In International Interactions, 30

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Editorial: Reflections on Islamophobia in Central and Eastern Europe

’s publication on Slovakia draws readers’ attention nearer to the perspective of this country through the lenses of a theory of securitization and the process applied to the 2016 general elections there. Zvada’s approach is valuable also for his attention paid to, first, the party which could be – in CEE reality – considered not only as that dominating Slovak politics but also as the “social democratic” one, Direction-SD, and second, to three another relevant political parties which may be characterized as on the nationalistic wave either as the nationalist Slovak National

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