Effect of the Volume of Magneto-rheological Fluid on Shear Performance
As a kind of smart material, MR (magneto-rheological) fluid is dramatically influenced by the external magnetic field and can change from the liquid state to semi-solid state in several milliseconds. In this paper, the effect of different volume of MRF on its shear performance is proposed. A set of testing systems, including the plate-on-plate MRF shearing test rig, is built up to measure the relationship between the produced shear torque and the added volume of MRF in different current. The variation of magnetic flux density in the shear gap is measured by teslameter and simulated before and after MRF is added. The results validate the effect of volume on the shear torque experimentally.
In this study, a quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationship (QSPkR) model for the volume of distribution (Vd) values of 126 anti-infective drugs in humans was developed employing multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVM) using theoretical molecular structural descriptors. A correlation-based feature selection (CFS) was employed to select the relevant descriptors for modeling. The model results show that the main factors governing Vd of anti-infective drugs are 3D molecular representations of atomic van der Waals volumes and Sanderson electronegativities, number of aliphatic and aromatic amino groups, number of beta-lactam rings and topological 2D shape of the molecule. Model predictivity was evaluated by external validation, using a variety of statistical tests and the SVM model demonstrated better performance compared to other models. The developed models can be used to predict the Vd values of anti-infective drugs.
Research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. On the east side was a station in Goczałkowice and on the west side was a station in Frelichów. Meteorological monitoring was conducted at four points situated in the vicinity of the reservoir. On the basis of the research carried out between 2011–2013 it was concluded that the size of dry and wet deposition in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir is diversified in particular years, seasons and months. Due to high precipitation and biological processes (activity of flora and fauna) the pollutant loads in the form of biogenic compounds (nitrogen and phosphorus) are the highest in the summer season. Whereas pollutant inputs in the form of dry deposition are highest in the winter season (heating season), which in the case of a thick ice and snow cover in the spring time causes their accumulation and increased input into the reservoir water (thawing weather, snow-melt season). In relation to the 1970s the size of the deposition became smaller, but in the case of biogenic compounds it was diversified. A decrease was observed in the case of total nitrogen but an increase in the case of phosphorus. On the basis of a comparison of the received results with the data provided by the Provincial Inspector for Environmental Protection and calculated for the annual area deposition of the Pszczyna district in 2011 it appears that deposition of total nitrogen in the reservoir area slightly exceeded the area value. In the case of total phosphorus in relation to the area data the deposition was over twice as high, which indicates that biogenic compounds are still a significant load of atmospheric deposition in the reservoir area.
The purpose of the paper is to identify changes in the structure of the tourism function in Kujawy spas which have led to their transformation into tourism and health resorts. The study was based on tourist traffic statistics referring to the period 2000-2017 and included defining the relationship between curative and other forms of tourist traffic. The author has used a wide range of statistical data, as well as information provided by surveys to determine and analyze the statistical indicators of tourist traffic pace, intensity and structure. The analysis reveals a significant transformation of the spas in Kujawy. This is confirmed by the indicators of curative and non-curative tourist traffic and by the reasons for visiting health resorts. The pace of changes in the tourism function in individual spas is varied. It is fastest in Ciechocinek, accelerating in Wieniec-Zdrój and slowest in Inowrocław. The changes occurring in the spas are causing their gradual transformation into tourism and health resorts.
Mohamed Bencheikh, Abdelmajid Maghnouj, Jaouad Tajmouati and Abdessamad Didi
This study aims to investigate and evaluate the secondary photons characterizations under flattening filter (FF) for high radiotherapy quality in terms of fluence, energy fluence, energy fluence distribution, spectral distribution and angular spread distribution of secondary photons, which are mainly coming from primary collimator originated in the whole Linac head. However, the flattening filter illuminates the photons of low energy. After this component, the secondary photons of low energy are coming from flattening filter and secondary collimators that contaminate the dosimetry for deep tumor treatment.
Fluence profile, energy profile and angular spread of secondary photons decreased with FF volume reduction percent but energy distribution and spectral distribution kept almost constant with FF volume reduction. The FF volume reduction allows reducing the secondary photons emergent from FF in number and in energy and it permits to increase the radiotherapy efficiency by decreasing the photons contamination when the cancer is treating.
This article presents results of the free surface flow around ship hull on two different types of computational grid. Each type of mentioned grid has its own advantages and disadvantages in particular cases, mostly in one phase simulation. Omitting cases with capitation, there is no free surface involved in one phase simulation. Multiphase simulations are crucial in the ship design process and optimization. Recreating free surface on the triangular mesh causes difficulties, in contrast to the hexahedral meshes, where calculated surface is more aligned to the physical border of the fluids. In this paper, results from the triangular mesh were compared to results from hexahedral mesh. Conclusions about triangular meshes in two phase simulation are presented. The computational fluid dynamic toolbox OpenFOAM is used to perform calculations of the total resistance of work boat in calm water.
Blood is the vital liquid that holds the secrets of the whole body. The major part of it is called RBCs. The rest of it is WBCs and platelets. All these components float in liquid called plasma. Any variation in the shape or thevolume or the number of them in the blood is inherent with not only the blood diseases but also the human organs diseases.
RBCs in the plasma can be represented electrically as insulating particles (RBCs) in a conducting liquid (plasma).
Due to the difference in the electrical characteristics between the RBCs and the
ratio, obtained by dividing the nadir absolute lymphocyte count by the pre-RT absolute lymphocyte count, and (3) lymphopenia of grade 3 or higher (LP3+, absolute lymphocyte count < 500 × 10 6 /L) determined by CTCAE v 4.0, with the highest grade within one month after the start of RT recorded for analysis.
Delineation of the three organs at risk. Body A is thevolume enclosed by the body surface contour. Body B excludes air, pleural effusion, ascites, bile, urine, and the intestinal content. BM = bone marrow.
Amit K. Thawait, Lakshman Sondhi, Shubhashis Sanyal and Shubhankar Bhowmick
Here, V is thevolume fraction of the phase material, subscripts “ a ” and “ b ” correspond to the inner and outer materials, respectively. The inner and outer material volume fractions are related by:
V a + V b = 1
Here, V b is expressed as:
V b = ( r − a b − a ) n