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Introduction Housing is one of the important developmental goals of the Millennium development goals, which aim to reduce the number of one billion people living in slum settlements by half. The rapid urbanisation that has been experienced in cities of the global South has been fuelling the prevalence of homelessness and slum developments in these cities. The cities of the global South hold more than three quarters of the world’s population ( Mabogunge 2003 ). Housing problems in these cities have been shown to include high room occupancy, informal housing

: Virago, 1994. Sage, Lorna. “The Savage Sideshow: A Profile of Angela Carter.” The New Review 4 (1977): 51-56. Schroeder, Shannin. Rediscovering Magical Realism in the Americas. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2004. Sherman, Delia. “Grand Illusionist.” The Women’s Review of Books 9.10-11 (1992): 33. “The Somerset Maugham Award.” The Society of Authors Awards . Web. 1 Feb. 2020. Stewart, Melissa. “Roads of ‘Exquisite Mysterious Muck’: The Magical Journey through the City in William Kennedy’s Ironweed , John Cheever’s ‘The Enormous Radio,’ and Donald Barthelme


The process of industrialization and urban growth and the development of cities in the first three decades of the 20th century are inevitably related to rapid social changes. The new attitude to life, which corresponds to this process, affected the aesthetic perception and the work of artists as well. The study shows the sensitiveness of German expressionism to the dynamics, drive and chaos of the new city life. The expressionistic picture of the city is clearly ambivalent; it oscillates between fascination on the one hand and antipathy on the other. Expressionism also reflects the social alienation and the feeling of being lonely in a crowd as new phenomena of the 20th century.

. It is on this symbol, the dragon symbol, among other things, that Krakow’s citizens build their bond with the city. The present article deals with how widespread and multifaceted the impact of this symbol is. The articulation of the meaning of the dragon symbol in the urban space of Krakow and its role in building the inhabitants’ bonds with their city, which are the aims of this article, were preceded by theoretical considerations. Their aim was to organise the meaning of concepts and draw attention to the problem of symbolisation processes in a large city of


In current times of progressing desacralisation, a retrospective view of the transformations that take place in building this phenomenon from the landscape perspective of the city appears essential. The work’s main objective is the identification of the ongoing process on two scales: the micro and macro-scale and over time. The initial outline of the subject is meant to present the phenomenon within the structures of the city, the manner of its shaping and influence on the surroundings, orientation within space and strength of impact.

Introduction Since the spread of the idea of sustainable development, new models and concepts of this development in different spatial scales have been sought. Due to the increasing role of cities in the modern world, they are paid a great deal of attention to, with a view to making their development efficient, safe, resistant to various types of risks, and thus more permanent, stable and sustainable. One such concept, which is gaining in importance in recent years in research on urbanisation processes and the city, is the concept of resilience, adapted to a

Bibliography [1] Anderson J.F., St. Augustine and Being. A Metaphysical Essay , Villanova University, Martinus Ni Hoff, Hague 1965. [2] Banasiak M., Beauty as a subjective and objective value , May 17–20, 2010, Chair of the UKSW, (access: 12.12.2016). [3] Bartkowicz B., Przyczyny braku kompozycji i piękna w przeobrażeniach i rozwoju miast , Teka Komisji UiA PAN, Vol. XXXIII, Kraków 2001. [4] Baum M., Re-use. From Exception to Normality: Re-use in Urban Development , [in:] The city as Resource , T. Rieniets

level, Teka Komisji Ochrony i Kształtowania Środowiska Przyrodniczego PAN Lublin, III, 136-140. (in Polish) 11. Pawłowska K., 2012 ‒ Public participation in decision making process aboute nature in the city, in Bergier J. and Kronenberg J., (eds), Sustainable development - applications, Wydawnictwo Fundacja Sendzimira, Kraków, 3, 49-68. (in Polish) 12. Radwan S. and Sender J., 2008 ‒ Freshwater ecosystems - types, concepts of functioning and principles of protection, in Gliński J. and Michalczyk Z., (eds.), Chosen problems of water retention, UMCS Lublin, PAN O


The two famous, coastal cities – Miami Beach in the United States and Tel Aviv in Israel – have much in common: they have a similar history, topography and architecture. Their contemporary image was shaped relatively recently, in the second half of the 20th century. Thanks to the changes to the originally grey colour scheme, the sordid and unkempt cities were transformed into world-class tourist attractions and trendy style icons. That is when their current reputations were established: Miami Beach as the pastel-shaded hub of American Art Deco and white Tel Aviv as the symbol of modernist, Bauhaus-like architecture.

. Prawidłowości i determinanty rozwoju, pp. 36 – 52 Declaration No. LXVI.1.2014 of the Zielona Góra City Council of May 6, 2014 regarding the merger of Zielona Góra City and Commune as well as the appendix “Zielona Góra Contract” Diagnosis of economic and social effects of the connection of Zielona Góra City and Commune (research report) (2018), Zielona Góra,, pp. 1-55 - Document provided by the City of Zielona Góra Dubicki P., Kułyk P., (2018), Proces integracji miasta z gminą wiejską. Przykład Zielonej Góry [in:] Studia Miejskie vol. 32, pp. 113-124 [online] Available at