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dyes and textile wastewater. Chem. Eng. Process 2005 , 44 , 461-470. 7. Kim, T.H.; Park, C.; Kim, S. Water recycling from desalination and purification process of reactive dye manufacturing industry by combined membrane filtration. J. Clean. Prod. 2005 , 13 , 779-786. 8. Lee, J.W.; Choi, S.P.; Thiruvenkatachari, R.; Shim, W.G.; Moon, H. Submerged microfiltration membrane coupled with alum coagulation/powdered activated carbon adsorption for complete decolorization of reactive dyes. Water Res. 2006 , 40 , 435-444. 9. LaVerne, J.A. OH radicals and oxidizing

Application of Fenton's Reagent in the Textile Wastewater Treatment Under Industrial Conditions

Application of reactive dyes is very popular in textile industry as these dyestuffs are characterized by good fastness properties. Constapel et al in 2009 estimated the production of this type of dyes for over 140,000 Mg/year. The reactive dyes are mostly (50%) employed for coloration of cellulosic fibers, however they can also be applied on wool and nylon. Unfortunately, they possess a low degree of fixation (50÷90%), since the functional groups also bond to water, creating hydrolysis and the excess of dyes applied cause a colored pollution of aqueous environment. Moreover, dyeing process requires the use of: electrolytes in the form of aqueous solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 in the concentration up to 100 g/dm3, alkaline environment (pH > 10) and textile auxiliary agents (including detergents). Therefore, the wastewater generated during the reactive dyeing processes is characterized by high salinity, pH value and color, and due to low value of the BOD5/COD ratio are nonbiodegradable. The successful methods of textile wastewater treatment could be Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), amongst which the Fenton reagent seems to be most promising as it is the cheapest and easy in use. Based on the newest literature survey it was found that many successful tests with Fenton reaction were performed mainly in decolorization. However, not enough attention was devoted to decolorization of real industrial wastewater containing dyes, detergents and salts NaCl, or Na2SO4. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale were focused on the impact of NaCl and textile auxiliary agent (liquid dispersing and sequestering agent) on an inhibition of decolorization process by Fenton's reagent. The objects of the investigation were synthetic mixtures simulating the composition of real textile wastewater as well as the real industrial wastewater generated in the reactive dyeing. The inhibition of the Fenton decolorization in the presence of NaCl and liquid dispersing and sequestering agent was demonstrated. Additional experiments using pulse radiolysis were carried out in order to confirm the inhibition of chloride in the decolorization process.

Science and Technology, 41(9), 807-878. [4] Forgacs, E., Cserháti, T., Oros, G. (2004). Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: A review. Environment International, 30(7), 953-971. [5] Al-Ghouti, M. A., Khraisheh, M. A., Allen, S. J., Ahmad M. N. (2003). The removal of dyes from textile wastewater: a study of the physical characteristics and adsorption mechanisms of diatomaceous earth. The Journal of Environmental Management, 69, 229–238. [6] Mukherjee, A. K., Gupta, B., Chowdhury, S. M. S. (1999). Separation of dyes from cotton dyeing effluent using cationic

). Biodegradation, decolourisation and detoxifi cation of textile wastewater enhanced by advanced oxidation processes, J. Biotech. 89(2, 3), 175-184. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1656(01)00296-6. 11. Georgiou, D., Melidis, P., Aivasidis, A. & Gimouhopoulos, K. (2002). Degradation of azo-reacti ve dyes by ultraviolet radiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Dyes Pigm. 52, 69-78. DOI: 10.1016/S0143-7208(01)00078-X. 12. Farrauto, R. & Bartholomew C. (1997). Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes, Chapman & Hall, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London. 13. Duprez, D., Pereira, P

References 1. Kestioglu, K. and Yalili, M., Treatability of Textile Industry Wastewater with High COD Content by Chemical-Precipitation and Adsorption, Ekoloji Journal, Vol.15, No.59, (2006), 27-31. 2. Tang, C. and Chen, V., Nanofiltration of textile wastewater for water reuse, Desalination, Vol 143, No. 1, (2002), pp.11-20. 3. Marcucci, M., Ciardelli, G., Matteucci, A., Ranieri, L. and Russo, M., Experimental campaigns on textile wastewater for reuse by means of different membrane processes, Desalination, Vol. 149, No. 1-3 (2002), pp.137-143. 4. Marcucci, M

Publishing, 2019. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-08-102633-5. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/textile-wastewater . [10] BULGARIU, L. et al. 2019. The utilization of leaf-based adsorbents for dyes removal: A review. Journal of Molecular Liquids , 276 , 728-747. ISSN 0167-7322. [11] EL OUAHABI, I. et al. 2018. Adsorption of textile dye from aqueous solution onto a low cost conch shells. Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, 9 (7), 1987-1998. ISSN 2028-2508. [12] TANG, L. et al. 2019. Removal of active dyes by ultrafiltration membrane pre

Technology 52: 218-223. IRDEMEZ S., YILDIZ Y., TOSUNOGLU V. 2006c. Optimization of phosphate removal from wastewater by electrocoagulation with aluminum plate electrodes. Separation and Purification Technology 52: 394-401. KOBYA M., BAYRAMOGLU M., EYVAZ M. 2007. Technoeconomical evaluation of electrocoagulation for the textile wastewater using different electrode connections. Journal of Hazardous Materials 148: 311-318. KOBYA M., CAN O., BAYRAMOGLU M. 2003. Treatment of textile wastewaters by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes. Journal of Hazardous

. Desalination, 266, 2011, 134-141. MOHAN, N., BALASUBRAMANIAN, N., BASHA, C.A.: Electrochemical oxidation of textile wastewater and its reuse, J. Hazard. Mater., 147, 2007, 644-651. NCIBI, M.C., BEN HAMISSA, A.M., FATHALLAH, A., KORTAS, M.H., BAKLOUTI, T., MAHJOUB, B., SEFFEN M.: Biosorptive uptake of methylene blue using Mediterranean green alga Enteromorpha spp. J. Hazard. Mater. 170, 2009, 1050-1055. OGUNTIMEIN, G.B.: Biosorption of dye from textile wastewater effluent onto alkali treated dried sunflower seed hull and design of a batch adsorber. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 3

as an indicator of toxicity and treatment efficacy of textile wastewater. Environ Internat. 25: 619-624. Zuma BM, Tandlich R (2017) Modifications and monitoring of the laboratory scale greywater filter tower treatment system (Chapter 6). In Tandlich R (Ed.) Novel approaches to rainwater harvesting and sanitation in developing countries, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA.

.jhazmat.2006.09.076. 7. Edward, G. (1971). Synthetic dyes in biology, medicine, and chemistry. Academic press, London, England. DOI: 10.1086/407095. 8. Yee, K.O., Fu, Y.L., Shi-Peng, S., Bai-Wang, Z., Can- Zeng, L. & Tai-Shung, C. (2014). Nanofiltration hollow fiber membrane for textile wastewater treatment: from lab-scale to pilot-scale studies. Chem. Eng. Sci. 114, 51-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2014.04.007. 9. Qian-Cheng, X., Jue, W., Xiao, W., Bo-Zhi, C., Jia-Lin, G., Tian-Zhi, J., Shi-Peng, S. (2017). A hydrophilicity gradient control mechanism for fabricating delamination