The article below presents the evolution of terrorist tactics over the years. It describes the basic types of terrorist attacks divided by the place of attack and by means used to execute it. The recent ways of performing terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations have been presented on the basis of accessible sources and statistics. The last part of the article is dedicated to expected changes of terrorist attack tactics in the future.
stock returns; the case of event studies. Journal of Financial Economics , 14 (1), 3-31.
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Cam, M.A. (2007). The impact of terroristattacks on financial markets (master thesis). RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
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Chandra, R., Moriarity, S., & Willinger, L
Multicultural policy has recently been undergoing a marked crisis and is subject to wide criticism. In the light of recent terrorist attacks it is often highlighted that the reason for such situations might be too much openness towards foreigners. Most European countries are changing their immigration and integration policies limiting their social security and restricting the possibilities of an influx of immigrants. Sweden, which is perceived as one of the most open and tolerant states in Europe also faces new challenges concerning the future of its multicultural policy. The crisis in tolerance towards foreigners is quite visible and it is obvious that the social moods in this state are evolving. Therefore, the aim of the article is to analyze changes in the attitude towards Swedish immigration and its integration policy in the light of the attack on the Charlie Hebdo weekly offices.
The paper presents an approach for evaluation of the likelihood of damage to the transportation infrastructure in the context of the terrorist attacks on the example of a number of bridges located in Wrocław (Poland). Assuming that there will be only one bridge destroyed in a given area, in order to determine the probability of damage to one of the objects, there was one of multi-criteria optimization methods used, i.e. the method of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The main advantage of the analysis carried out was that the accepted hierarchy of decision-making options could be easily explained in a scientific manner, not only with reference to personal knowledge, experience, and intuition.
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DEFOSTER, R. M. (2010
22 July and the Chernobyl Disaster: Two Catastrophes, Dissimilar Outcomes
Caring: The Reason for the Future.) Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Stormark, K. (2012) Da terroren rammet Norge:189 minutter som rystet verden. (When Norway was stricken by terror: 189 minutes that shook the world.) Oslo: Kagge Forlag.
Thoresen, S., Aakvaag H.F., Wentzel-Larsen T., Dyb G. and Hjemdal O.K. (2012): The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terroristattacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island, European Journal of Psychotraumatology 3: 19709.
Vettenranta, S. (2012
Comparing Swedish news and cultural journalism on the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris
Kristina Riegert and Andreas Widholm
this event in different national contexts, but less well researched is that there may also be variations of meanings made of this event in different subfields of journalism. Most studies of media and terrorism focus on news journalism in the mainstream media or, more recently, the circulation of stories in social media. However, the rise of terroristattacks on cultural targets like magazines, music or leisure venues prompts the question of whether cultural journalism as a “specialised subfield” ( Kristensen & Riegert, 2017a ) provides a different overall
themselves as protectors of their nation’s ‘Christian identity’ that is allegedly endangered by an ‘invasion of Muslims’ ( Schenkkan 2016 ).
But what is the position of the citizens? The perception of Islam and Muslims as an aggressive menace to Western societies gained importance in the aftermath of the Cold War ( Huntington 1997 ) and since the terroristattacks of 9/11 ( Ruf 2014 ). International surveys show that anti-Muslim resentments are widespread among Western public ( Helbling 2012 ; Pickel and Yendell 2016 ; PEW Research 2018; Strabac and Listhaug 2008
The main purpose of this article is to bring more light - further information and a better understanding – on the reasons for the failure of the intelligence services to combat terrorist attacks. Starting with September 11th 2001 in the USA, continuing with the attack on 11th March 2004 in Madrid, and the London one on 7th July 2005, and the latest events – the bombing of the Paris and Istanbul, all this made me pay particular attention to the reasons for the intelligence services not to fall within the limits of early warning, which often lead to real catastrophes. The article focuses on drawing, as close to reality as possible, the parallel between failures of intelligence and terrorist attacks. Therefore, I have focused on the connection between actionable intelligence and terrorist attack on September 11th, 2001 in the USA. The concept ‘actionable intelligence’ involves the transformation of information into real action, one meant to launch a protective barrier, and go on the offensive. Starting from this premise, and in parallel with the attack on September 11th, 2001, we can say that intell services failed to prevent and stop this event. ‘Balance bombing’ meant the first piece of the terrorist attacks puzzle, which has tended towards a broadening of horizon given the increasing number of attacks occurred so far. Thus, the article briefly reflects an assessment of the grounds for which the intelligence services continue to fail in fighting terrorism.