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Abstract

For the past 150 years, American art and art criticism have undergone important cultural and ideological transformations that are explanatory both of their historical evolution and of the possibility of being divided into several stages. In my interpretation, art criticism cuts across the historical evolution of art in the United States, according to the following cultural and ideological paradigms: two predominant cultural ideologies of art between 1865-1900 and 1960-1980, respectively; two other aesthetic and formalist ideological shifts in the periods between 1900- 1940 and 1940-1960, respectively, and one last pluralist approach to the arts after 1980. Even if this conceptualisation of art criticism in America might seem risky and oversimplifying, there are conspicuous and undeniable arguments supporting it. In a previous study published by American, British and Canadian Studies, I provided conceptual justifications both for the criteria dividing the cultural and the ideological within the overall assessment of American art by art critics and for the analysis and interpretation of the first two important temporal periods in the field of art criticism, 1865-1900 and 1908-1940. The present study continues by analyzing the cultural and ideological stances of American art criticism after 1940 and argues for certain paradigmatic shifts from one period to another.

Works Cited Armstrong, Tim. “Modernist Temporality: The Science and Philosophy and Aesthetics of Temporality from 1880.” The Cambridge History of Modernism . Ed. Vincent Sherry. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2016. 31-46. Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction . 2 nd edition. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983. Childs, Peter, and Roger Fowler. The Routledge Dictionary of Literary Terms . London: Routledge, 2006. Cuningham, Henry Carrington III. “The Dickens Connection in Kazuo Ishiguro’s When We Were Orphans .” Notes on Contemporary Literature 34.5 (Nov. 2004): 4

Baudrillard.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Ed. E.N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University, 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York . New York: Monacelli P, 2004. Lyotard, J.F. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . Trans. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. 1984. Miller, Tyrus. “Glass Before its Time, Premature Iron. Architecture, Temporality and Dream in Benjamin’s Arcades Project .” Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project . Ed. Beatrice Hanssen. London: Continuum, 2006. 240-259. Oates, Joyce

in Global Politics. Ed. Jenny Edkins, Véronique Pin-Fat, and Michael J. Shapiro. London: Routledge, 2004. Hirsh, Marianne. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1997. Krauss, Rosalind. A Voyage on the North Sea: Art in the Age of the Post-Medium Condition . London: Thames, 1999. Lang, Johannes. “Hannah Arendt and the Political Dangers of Emotion.” Hannah Arendt Centre. Feb. 2015. Web. 28 June 2016. Levin, Thomas Y. “Rhetoric of the Temporal Index: Surveillant Narration and the Cinema of Real Time.” CTRL Space: The

specific case of the Portuguese novel by Gonçalo Tavares, A Girl Is Lost in Her Century in Search of the Father, which reuses anachronistic and even unrelated elements of 21 st- century Portugal, such as Nazism and the notion of cosmopolitanism. If, in this essay, temporality is the starting point for literary circulation, in Kempinska’s text, “Cultural Circulation and the Age of Cultures in Witold Gombrowicz,” temporality and its implications to circulation are considered from the angle of Witold Gombrowicz, a Polish writer who settled in Argentina. Kempinska

in the mud like worms.” (Edmond Jabès, The Book of Questions. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University, 1976. 171.) “It is not that what casts its light in what is present, or what is present its light on what is past; rather, image is that wherein what has been comes together in a flash with the now to form a constellation. In other words: image is dialectics at a standstill. For while the relation of the present to the past is purely temporal, the relation of what-has-been to the now is dialectical: not temporal in nature – that is, not archaic

References Archer, Dawn 2010 "Speech acts", in: Andreas H. Jucker - Irma Taavitsainen (eds.), 379-417. Arnovick, Leslie Katherine 1990 The development of future constructions in English: The pragmatics of modal and temporal will and shall in Middle English. (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics 2.) New York: Peter Lang. Arnovick, Leslie Katherine 1999 Diachronic pragmatics: Seven case studies in English illocutionary development. (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 68.) Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Austin, John Langshow

. In Marcin Krygier & Liliana Sikorska (eds.), Naked wordes in Englissh , 47–67. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. Molencki, Rafał. 2007a. On the rise of the temporal preposition/conjunction before . In Marcin Krygier & Liliana Sikorska (eds.), To make his Englissh sweete upon his tonge , 37–54. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. Molencki, Rafał. 2007b. Rozwój diachroniczny before i after w języku angielskim. In Andrzej Łyda (ed.), Przestrzenie języka , 10–24. Katowice: Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Marketingowego i Języków Obcych. Molencki, Rafał. 2008. The rise of because

The Monophthongisation of Diphthongs Before Dorsal Fricatives: A Corpus Study

The paper discusses the geographical distribution of the monophthongisation of (1) the diphthong [ei] (< [e:ç]) before the palatal fricative [ç] (i.e. [eiç > i:ç]) and (2) the diphthong [ou] (< [o:×]) before the velar fricative [×] (i.e. [oux > u:x] in words like high an bough. The resulting monophthongs became the input to the diphthongisation rule, a part of the Great Vowel Shift. On the basis of forty-nine Middle English poetic texts from the Chadwyck-Healey online corpus an effort is made here to establish temporal and dialectal conditioning of the change.

References Arnovick, Leslie Katharine. 1990. The development of future constructions in English: The pragmatics of modal and temporal will and shall in Middle English (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics 2). New York, etc.: Peter Lang. Arnovick, Leslie Katharine. 1999. Diachronic pragmatics: Seven case studies in English illocutionary development (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 68). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Austin, John Langshow. 1962. How to do things with words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard