Land cover change is the result of complex interactions between social and environmental systems which change over time. While climatic and biophysics phenomena were for a long time the principal factor of land transformations, human activities are today the origin of the major part of land transformation which affects natural ecosystems.
Quantification of natural and anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover is often hampered by logistical issues, including (1) the difficulty of systematically monitoring the effects over large areas and (2) the lack of comparison sites needed to evaluate the effect of the factors.
The effective procedure for measuring the degree of environmental change due to natural factors and human activities is the multitemporal study of vegetation cover. For this purpose, the aim of this work is the analysis of the evolution of land cover using remote sensing techniques, in order to better understand the respective role of natural and anthropogenic factors controlling this evolution.
A spatio-temporal land cover dynamics study on a regional scale in Oranie, using Landsat data for two periods (1984–2000) and (2000–2011) was conducted. The images of the vegetation index were classified into three classes based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values and analysed using image difference approach.
The result shows that the vegetation cover was changed. An intensive regression of the woody vegetation and forest land resulted in -22.5% of the area being lost between 1984 and 2000, 1,271 km2 was converted into scrub formations and 306 km2 into bare soil. On the other hand, this class increased by around 45% between 2000 and 2011, these evolutions resulting from the development of scrub groups with an area of 1,875.7 km2.
. During longwall exploitation in the Coal-Mine “Pokój” temporal distribution of vertical displacements determined for GNSS stations in the area demonstrated relations with occurrences of tremors. Some distinguishing changes in the subsidence velocity or uplift as the next increase of subsidence velocity were considered as a disturbance in the course of vertical displacements ( Sokoła-Szewioła, 2011 ). This disturbance occurred before each of the analysed tremors and according to Sokoła-Szewioła, it can be considered as a predictor of tremor induced by longwall mining
Janusz Bogusz, Anna Klos, Marta Gruszczynska and Maciej Gruszczynski
Bogusz, J., Gruszczynski, M., Figurski, M., & Klos, A. (2015). Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks. Open Geosciences, 2015; 7, pp. 140-148, DOI: 10.1515/geo-2015-0021.
Bogusz, J., & Klos, A. (2015). On the significance of periodic signals in noise analysis of GPS station coordinates time series. GPS Solutions, DOI: 10.1007/s10291-015-0478-9.
Bogusz, J., Klos, A., Figurski, M., Jarosinski, M., & Kontny, B. (2013). Investigation of the reliability of local strain analysis by the
Grazia Caradonna, Antonio Novelli, Eufemia Tarantino, Raffaela Cefalo and Umberto Fratino
and electronics in agriculture, 98, 121-130.
Tan, K. C., San Lim, H., MatJafri, M. Z., & Abdullah, K. (2012). A comparison of radiometric correction techniques in the evaluation of the relationship between LST and NDVI in Landsat imagery. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184(6), 3813-3829.
Tarantino, E., Novelli, A., Aquilino, M., Figorito, B., & Fratino, U. (2015). Comparing the MLC and JavaNNS Approaches in Classifying Multi-Temporal LANDSAT Satellite Imagery over an Ephemeral River Area. International Journal of
The variability of daily site coordinates at permanent GNSS station is a sum of many disturbing factors influencing the actual satellite observations, data processing, and bias modelling. In the paper are analysed possibilities of monitoring the instability of GNSS antenna pillar monument by the independent observations using the precise inclination sensor. Long-term series from three different types of pillars show specific features in amplitude and temporal evolution of monument bending. Correlations with daily temperature and/or solar radiation changes were proved.
The GNSS data evaluated from on observation of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas is analyzed by the author in the scope of disturbances in daily solutions that can be induced by tectonics stress. The daily position changes derived from GNSS data demonstrate the long or short term trends, which are affected by offsets of different nature. Author presents an analysis based on frequency of parameter – displacement vector azimuth. The aim of the analysis is to show statistical significance of observed small values of temporal displacements, which values are not normally distributed. There are “outliers” of the normal distribution of displacement azimuths, which values show a certain reproducibility, which corresponds to orientations of tectonic lines. That suggests small, short time movements along boundaries of horsts and grabens – a crustal-extension structure of the area. However derived results (values of displacements) are less than a limitation error, temporal distributions of coordinates are not random as usually data errors. So in author’s opinion the spatial-temporal evolution of horizontal displacements of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas are determined by expressions of underlying geological structures.
Water quality of collapsible, concrete, earthen and natural ponds under different culture systems were assessed using of Photometer and tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done in triplicates. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 4.6 to 6.8 mg/l, carbon dioxide 1.4 - 3.0 mg/l, nitrate 1.6 - 3.2 mg/l, phosphate 0.8 - 2.3 mg/l, calcium hardness 65- 100 mg/l, magnesium hardness 30 - 50 mg/l and total hardness 80 and 165 mg/l. Conductivity ranged between 346 - 472 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 232 - 316 mg/l, transparency 36 - 82 cm, alkalinity 105 - 245 mg/l, pH 6.35 - 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9 °C. Significant difference (P<0.05) was obtained among the parameters in the ponds showing the effects of the different culture systems on the water quality. Variations in the water quality was due to the presence of plankton and macrophytes found in earthen and natural ponds where semi-intensive and extensive culture were practiced, use of artificial feed in collapsible and concrete ponds where intensive culture was done, effects of respiration, photosynthesis and decomposition, source of water and materials used for the construction of the ponds. Water quality in the ponds under the different culture systems was good.
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Space Physics, 10.3, 761-797.
Güntner, A., Stuck, J., Werth, S., Döll, P., Verzano, K., & Merz, B. (2007). A global analysis of temporal and spatial variations in continental water storage. Water Resources Research, 43(W05416). doi: DOI:10.1029/2006WR005247
Hunger, M., & Döll, P. (2008). Value of river discharge data for global-scale hydrological modeling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 841-861. Retrieved from http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/841/2008/hess-12-841-2008.html doi: 10.5194/hess-12