BEAVERS, John: Scalar complexity and the structure of events. In: Event structures in linguistic form and interpretation. Eds. J. Dölling, T. Heyde-Zybatow a M. Schäfer. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 2008, s. 245 - 265.
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Levin, B. and Rappaport Hovav, M. (2005). Argument realization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levin, B. and Grafmiller, J. (2013). Do you always fear what frightens you? In T. H. King and V. de Paiva (Eds.), From quirky case to representing space: Papers in honor of Annie Zaenen (pp. 21-32). Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.
Marín, R. and McNally, L. (2011). Inchoativity, change of state and telicity. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 29, 467-502.
The article examines the interaction of resultative and goal phrases with aspect in Polish and English. The first research problem concerns the ability of resultative and goal phrases to aspectually delimit (telicize) an atelic predicate. Data from English shows that resultative and goal phrases systematically make an atelic predicate telic in non-progressive sentences, but they fail to do so in progressive constructions. In Polish, imperfective (atelic) constructions can never be aspectually delimited by such phrases. It is argued that resultative and goal phrases lose their telicizing potential when in the scope of an aspectual functional head Asp specified as [-telic]. This is the case in English progressive and Polish imperfective sentences. The Asp head is able to override the telicity specification established compositionally within VP. The Asp head in Polish is obligatory and the value of its telicity feature ([+telic] for perfective and [-telic] for imperfective) is responsible for the interpretation of the VP selected by Asp as a complement. In English such projection is optional. When it is absent, the telicity of a predicate can be computed from the default aspectual type of the lexical verb combined with other elements inside VP, including resultative and goal phrases. A related problem also addressed in the article concerns the meaning of progressive / imperfective resultative and goal constructions. The problem is presented as part of a larger task of finding a proper analysis for accomplishment predicates combined with a progressive / imperfective operator. The proposed solution is based on the notion of directionality. It is suggested that resultative and goal constructions denote a process of some entity changing in the ‘direction’ of a new state. When the process is understood as having a culmination, the ‘direction’ of the transition indicates a new state actually holding of the entity undergoing transition. When a progressive / imperfective operator is introduced, it can remove the culmination leaving just the directed-transition process. A formalization of this analysis is provided.
So Yeon Kim, Su Jin Park, Ye Eun Lee, Eun Ha Lee, Hwa Yeong Lim, Hwa Yeong Lim and Gyu Yoo
Study aim: The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of tele-rehabilitation mental practice (TRMP) on balancing performance for patients with hemiplegia. Material and methods: This study included five stroke patients, and all participants were trained to help to recover balancing performance. TRMP was applied for a total of 15 training sessions for 3 weeks, and pre- and post-intervention evaluations were carried out during this study. The Berg Balance Scale was used to confirm the balance ability, the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale to confirm the falls efficacy, and the Wii program to confirm the right and left weight distribution ratio. Results: As a result of this study, we could not confirm a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention balance capacity and fall efficacy. However, weight distribution showed a significant difference after the intervention. Conclusion: TRMP may be applied in novel balance training for stroke patients.
Differences between vertical mobilities of nutrient and trace elements within a long-term sludge-treated and an adjacent untreated Alpine grassland cambisol were investigated by column experiments. The site had been intensely fertilized with urban sewage sludge for 10 years of 7.5 Mg/ha annually, whereas an adjacent site had been left untreated. A model column experiment was set up to investigate changes of permeabilities and trace element retentions at 0-20 cm and 20-60 cm layers thereof. Elution was performed with de-ionized water at amounts of expected rainfall at the sampling site (1000 mm), as well as with equal volume of manure after biogas production. Long-term sludge treatment increased organic carbon, formation of ammonium and nitrate, and increased vertical mobility of K, P, S, Cu, and Fe, but also slightly higher (below 10-fold) for Na, Sr, Ba, Ni and V. Additional application of manure was of minor effect, mainly upon nitrate formation, and upon leaching of Fe, Mn as well as Fe/Mn proportion. Prior addition of FeCl2 to the manure in order to increase sulfide precipitation, mainly affected the output of ammonia, but hardly the cations or anions (e.g. P) investigated.
Monofloral rape, sunflower, linden and acacia honeys as well as honeys sampled within and around the Austrian towns Vienna and Linz, as well as in rural areas in Lower Austria, were analysed for main and trace elements. The results were tested to be used as indication of urban dust exposure. Main elements of the ash are K, P, and B, which are specific for plant origin. Ash based data correct for dilutions by the sugar matrix. They showed enrichments of Cu, Zn and Mo, whereas the contaminant elements Cd, Pb and Co were found at about the same levels as expectable in dust. Ash-based Al, Fe, Cr and Li were much lower than soil levels obtainable from aqua regia. Among the monofloral honey samples, the effect of adjacent soil was largest for Mn. Most differences between rural areas and urban areas in Vienna and Linz were within experimental errors, both per sample weight and per ash weight. In cases honey samples are considered to trace contaminations, the additional use of ash-based data is recommended.
This paper describes a study of emotion recognition based on speech analysis. The introduction to the theory contains a review of emotion inventories used in various studies of emotion recognition as well as the speech corpora applied, methods of speech parametrization, and the most commonly employed classification algorithms. In the current study the EMO-DB speech corpus and three selected classifiers, the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), were used in experiments. SVMs turned out to provide the best classification accuracy of 75.44% in the speaker dependent mode, that is, when speech samples from the same speaker were included in the training corpus. Various speaker dependent and speaker independent configurations were analyzed and compared. Emotion recognition in speaker dependent conditions usually yielded higher accuracy results than a similar but speaker independent configuration. The improvement was especially well observed if the base recognition ratio of a given speaker was low. Happiness and anger, as well as boredom and neutrality, proved to be the pairs of emotions most often confused.
Denmark being a country with only a few suitable steep nesting cliffs has only harboured a small population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in historic time. In the previous century, the population gradually declined due to persecution, egg and young collection, and pollution. The last breeding attempt in the 20th century occurred in 1972 in southeastern Denmark. No new breeding attempts were recorded in Denmark until 2001 but since then the population has gradually increased – most rapidly since 2012 – to a peak of 24 territorial pairs in 2018; some of them breeding on man-made structures (nest boxes at bridges and power plants). Here we update the information on the reestablishment of the Peregrine Falcon in Den-mark, including origin and dispersal, reproduction, and eggshell thinning.