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megoldások. A média hatása a gyermekekre és fiatalokra . Miercurea Ciuc: Státus Kiadó, 43–51. Gergely, O. (2015b). „Olyan akarok lenni, mert ő sikeres.” Székelyföldi tizenévesek példaképeiről. Erdélyi Társadalom 13(2): 65–83. Gergely, O. (2016a). New Media, New Idols? Teenagers’ Role Models in Eastern Transylvania. In: Boldea, I. (ed.), Globalization and National Identity. Studies on the Strategies of Intercultural Dialogue. Communication and Public Relations and Journalism Section. Târgu-Mureş: Arhipelag XXI Press, 176–190. Gergely, O. (2016b). New Media, New Idols

atribúty ovplyvňujúce preferencie spotrebiteľov. Geografický časopis, 67(4): 341-357. Križan, F., Kunc, J., Bilková, K., Barlík, P., Šilhan, Z. (2017): Development and classification of shopping centers in Czech and Slovak Republics: comparative analysis. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geographica, 52(1): 18-26. Križan, F., Lauko, V. (2014): Geografia maloobchodu. Úvod do problematiky. Bratislava, Univerzita Komenského. Kunc, J., Dvořák, Z. (2016): Attractiveness of Brno Shopping Centres for Teenagers: Vaňkovka or Olympia?. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. [eds.]: 19 th


Polish pedagogical and psychological literature as well as mass media more and more often inform about disorders of competences and social relations of teenagers, as a result of abuse of digital technologies, especially smartphones. The authors analysed 31 cases of patients with cyberabuse and addictions at the Social Prevention Centre in terms of the occurrence, intensity and character of the disappearance of their real social contacts, as well as their behaviour in small natural peer groups. The obtained results were compared with 49 groups of adults and parents of patients. Research based on participatory observation and in-depth interviews showed that teenagers devote over 62% less time to personal social relations than their parents, their time of real social relations with parents is about 38 minutes per day, create atomistic attitudes towards family (e.g. refusal to participate in common meals), have shallow and narrow groups of friends, and prefer borrowed contacts (through social media). The average declared number of teenagers’ friends in social media exceeds 540, while their parents use smartphones in less than 140. Young respondents use smartphones in almost every social and life context (e.g. in toilets, in church, at school, during meals). The research confirmed the occurrence of digital technology abuse. The article ends with preventive delegations.


Dental caries in children and teenagers is a social problem and an important element in public health. It stems from its high prevalence and the consequences of not implementing proper treatment are serious. Younger and younger children suffer from dental caries. When it is not treated, the consequences tend to be serious and costly. Pathogenesis of dental caries, methods of treatment and its prevention have been described based on available literature.

The decline in frequency of its appearance will be beneficial for both the sick and society. It will be possible thanks to an early introduction of caries prophylaxis. What is more, a change of mindset and lifestyle is highly recommended as well, not to mention the fact that full and easy access to dental care seems to be essential. All of the factors mentioned above are strictly connected with the proper organization of dental care providing special treatment for children and teenagers in Poland. Its scale should be wide and should cover such activities like teaching to brush one’s teeth properly, access to fluoridation or treatment provided in public dental surgeries located, for example, on school grounds. Current organization of dental care is dealing better and better with the issue concerned, however, to minimalize the risk of caries in children further changes should be introduced.


Objectives: Reference values are fundamental for the interpretation of laboratory results, which are useful for medical decisions. Each laboratory has to have its own reference values classified according to age groups in order to interpret test results correctly. The expression “normal values” has been replaced by “reference values” because there are various variables that are considered to influence these values. The majority of “reference values” were established over two decades ago using obsolete medical devices and in many cases undefined populations; therefore, nowadays these intervals are not relevant anymore for modern testing technology in clinic laboratories. Methods and materials: The study was carried out at Sibiu Clinic Pediatric Hospital using the laboratory’s electronic archive. The samples were taken from hospitalized patients (children and teenagers) and outpatients registered between January and December, 2010. Blood sample testing was performed using the Sysmex XS 1000i analyzer. The reference values for hemoglobin was calculated based on results from a population sample of 9838 patients. The patients were classified into 3 age categories: 1 month - 2 years old; 2 - 10 years old; 10 - 18 years old. Reference values were determined after eliminating outliers,using the robust method to calculate 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles with the SPSS statistical software. Results and Conclusions: The results obtained differed from those specified in the Roche Diagnostics 2004 Guide but were found to be close to the results mentioned in Lothar Thomas’s publication, in Laboratory diagnostics.

and Sociocultural Theory: New Directions and Perspectives . Ed. by D. Lupton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 86-107. Kroger, Jane. Identity in Adolescence: the balance between self and other . London: Routledge, 2004. Lee, C., Conroy, D. and Hii C. “The Internet: A consumer socialization agent for teenagers.” ANZMAC 2003 Conference , Adelaide 1-3 December 2003. Lemish, Dafna. Children and Television: A global perspective . Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. Livingstone, Sonia. Children and the Internet . Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009. Melrose, Andrew. Here

a prevalence of 0.3–0.9 in 100,000 inhabitants ( 6 , 10 ), lower as compared to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the epidemiologic data may be highly underestimated. A different perspective comes from the evaluation of cohorts of patients investigated for an ILD, where chronic HP is one of the possible diagnoses. This can lead to 18–30% of chronic HP among the ILDs, with some registries showing a proportion of up to 47% of HP ( 11 ). In children and teenagers, the ILDs have a very low prevalence, being considered orphan diseases; a Danish report identified an

Förenade CyberMuslimer - blågul islam på internet?’ [Sweden’s united cybermuslims - blue and yellow Islam on the internet?], in Svanberg, I & Westerlund D. (eds.) Blågul islam? Muslimer i Sverige. Nora: Nya Doxa. Smith, C. with Lundquist Denton, M. (2005) Soul Searching. The Religions and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers. New York, NJ: Oxford University Press. Sjöborg, A. (2006) Bibeln på mina egna villkor. En studie av medierade kontakter med bibeln med särskilt avseende på ungdomar och internet [The Bible on my own terms. A study of mediated contacts with the

References Bandler, Richard and John Grinder. 1979. Frogs into PRINCES - Neuro Linguistic Programming. Moab: Real People Press. Barbovschi, Monica and Maria Diaconescu (eds.). 2008. Teenagers’ Actions and Interactions Online in Central and Eastern Europe. Potential and Empowerment, Risks and Victimization. Cluj Napoca: Cluj University Press. Diaconescu Maria. 2008. The Concept of Empathy in Philosophy and Psychotherapy. Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Philosophia LIII (1-2): 105-115. Diaconescu, Maria. 2008. Face to Face & without Face and Sound: Offline

). Specifically, civic online reasoning permits citizens to engage with political and social topics in critical and constructive ways. It has, however, proven to be quite a challenge to implement digital tools and digital literacy in education and we need to better understand the abilities and inabilities of teenagers to navigate news online. The aim of the current study was to investigate Swedish teenagers’ ability to assess the credibility of online news and how this relates to personal characteristics and beliefs, which in turn will enable us to suggest educational measures