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Technological competitiveness of the EU member states in the era of the fourth industrial revolution

-41 Fagerberg, J. (1996, September). Technology and competitiveness. Oxford Review of Economic Policy , 12 (3), 39-51. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/12.3.39 Ferraro, S., Dutt, P. K., & Kerikmäe, T. (2017). Using patent development, education policy and research and development expenditure policy to increase technological competitiveness of small European Union member states. Croatian International Relations Review , 23 (78), 97-126. Grossman, G. E., & Helpman, E. (1989). Comparative advantage and long-run growth . (NBER Working Papers 2809

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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

Abstract

The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU) and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness) by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D) expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Understand Differences between Countries: The Case of Estonia and Finland

://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/National_accounts_and_GDP [accessed 20 Apr 2018] Ferraro, S.; Dutt, K. P.; Kerikmäe, T. (2017), ‘Using patent development, education policy and research and development expenditure policy to increase technological competitiveness of small European Union Member States,’ Croatian International Relations Review, vol. 23, no. 78, pp. 97−126. https://doi.org/10.1515/cirr-2017-0009 Finnish Government (2017a), IT-palveluiden vienti on jo Suomen “uusi Nokia”. Retrieved from http://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/itpalveluiden

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Transfer Prices and Aggressive Tax Optimization

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this study is transfer prices and their use for optimization of financial burdens of international companies (capital groups). The purpose of this study was to present transfer pricing issues in the light of applicable law and using them for tax purposes.

Materials and methods: The study uses literature and data from the World Bank and Google. Methods of descriptive and tabular analysis and inference were used.

Results: Google makes 91% of its revenues outside the US.

Conclusions: Transfer pricing is a tool for optimizing tax burden of international companies that bring them benefits in the form of the so-called “globalization annuity”, which makes them economically stronger and more technologically competitive. Polish tax law on transfer pricing has been tightened since 2001; transfer pricing issues are also regulated by the European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

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The Caucasus 3 Plus the Baltic 3 and Economic Cooperation with China

. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/China-EU_-_international_trade_in_goods_statistics [accessed Nov 2018] Ferraro, S.; Dutt, K. P. & Kerikmäe, T. (2017), ‘Using patent development, education policy and research and development expenditure policy to increase technological competitiveness of small European Union Member States,’ Croatian International Relations Review , vol. 23, no. 78, pp. 97−126. https://doi.org/10.1515/cirr-2017-0009 Hanemann, T. & Huotari, M. (2017), Record Flows and Growing Imbalances: Chinese

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Does Globalization Affect Regional Growth? Evidence for Nuts-2 Regions in EU-27

., Guldmann, J. M. (2007). Spatial interaction modeling of interregional commodity flows. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 41(2), 147-162. Narula, R.,Wakelin, K. (1998). Technological Competitiveness, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 9, 373-387. Noorbakhsh, F., Paloni, A. (2001). Human Capital and FDI Inflows to Developing Countries: New Empirical Evidence. World Development, 29(9), 1593-1610. Notaro, G. (2002). European Integration and Productivity: Exploring the Gains of the

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Unpacking the provision of the industrial commons in Industry 4.0 cluster

internationalization process of the firm. International Journal of Management Reviews , 16 (1), 2-23. Welch, C., Piekkari, R., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, E. (2011). Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research. Journal of International Business Studies , 42 , 740-762. Weresa, M. A. (2019). Technological competitiveness of the EU member states in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. Economics and Business Review , 3 (19), 50-71. Yamamura, S., & Lassalle, P. (2019). Proximities and the

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Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services Across Europe – Main Approaches and Examples from Slovakia

., Rowcroft, P., Everard, M., Couldrick, L., Reed, M., Rogers, H., Quick, T., Eves, Ch. & White C. (2013). Payments for ecosystem services: a best practice guide . London: Defra. Stanton, T., Echavarria, M., Hamilton, K. & Ott C. (2010). State of watershed payments: an emerging marketplace . State of watershed payments: an emerging marketplace. https://www.forest-trends.org/publications/state-of-watershed-payments/ Sternberg, E. (1996). Recuperating from market failure: planning for biodiversity and technological competitiveness. Public Administration Review

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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Understand Differences Between Countries – The Case of Estonia and Germany

://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/National_accounts_and_GDP#Developments_in_GDP_in_the_EU:_growth_since_2013 Accessed: 14.06.2019 EVAS, Tatjana, HOFFMANN, Thomas, JOAMETS, Kristi, KERIKMAE, Tanel, LOIK, Ramon, NYMAN-METCALF, Katrin, POPOV, Aleksandr, SARAV, Sandra. General Frameworks. In KERIKMAE, Tanel, JOAMETS, Kristi, RODINA, Anita, PLEPS, Janis, GRUODYTE, Edita (eds). The Law of the Baltic States, Springer Verlag, 2018, pp. 41−100. FERRARO, Simona, DUTT, Pawan, KERIKMAE, Tanel. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

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Towards a Taxonomy of International Competitiveness

://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2007.09.002 Chaudhuri, S. and Ray, S. (1997). The competitiveness conundrum: literature review and reflections. Economic and Political Weekly, M83-M91. Chesnais, F. (1986). Science, technology and competitiveness. STI Review, 1. Chesnais, F. (1991). Technological Competitiveness Considered as a Form of Structural Competitiveness. In: Technology and National Competitiveness. McGill-Queen’s University Press. Cho, D.-S. (1998). From National Competitiveness to Bloc and Global

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