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Assisted Language Learning, doi: 10.1080/09588221.2014.963123 MacDonald, S. (2002). Pronunciation-views and practices of reluctant teachers. Prospect, 17(3), 3-18. McGrath, I. (2013). Teachingmaterials and the roles of EFL/ESL teachers: practice and theory. London: Bloomsbury. Murphy, J. M. (2014). Intelligible, comprehensible, non-native models in ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching. System, 42, 258-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.007 Nair, R., Krishnasamy, R., & de Mello, G. (2006). Rethinking the teaching of pronunciation in the ESL classroom. The English
Contrary to the claim made by Hutchinson and Waters (1987) that designing teaching materials should be the last option considered, Basturkmen and Bocanegra-Valle (2018) remind that many ESP teachers are very frequently directly involved in designing teaching materials as commercially published coursebooks and other materials tend not to be relevant to the needs of their specialized groups of learners.
This paper offers an insight into the key aspects as well as the sequence of ESP materials design. It outlines the main beliefs and principles which constitute the general framework for teaching materials development and summarizes the major explicit and implicit teachers’ beliefs which inevitably reflect on the process of materials design. This paper also tackles the issues of assumed abilities and training for developing and/or adapting teaching materials offered to ESP teachers in the attempt to answer the everlasting question whether being a good ESP teacher automatically implies being a good materials designer.
Study aim: the purpose of this study has been to develop teaching materials to help improve junior high school students’ fundamental ability to repeatedly run and jump with a high and far-reaching travelling motion and to confirm the effectiveness of a new unit using teaching materials that are experimental in comparison to a conventional unit.
Materials and methods: one unit emphasized the conventional approach. This unit aims to improve the ability to step over hurdles. To help improve this ability, a ‘step-up hurdle’ was used as the conventional teaching material. This task focused on reducing the up-and-down motion using three hurdles whose height was set lower than those used in a competitive hurdle run. The other unit aims to improve the ability to jump high and far over hurdles. To help improve this ability, ‘high-jump hurdles’ were developed and used as the teaching material. The motor skill task was to clear three hurdles without knocking a hurdle down, with the hurdle height set as high as possible. Such conventional and new units were used for a group of 25 girls and a group of 18 girls in a junior high school (CON and EXP, respectively) and were conducted during six lessons.
Results: EXP’s high-jump hurdle scores significantly increased throughout the advanced lessons. While CON did not significantly improve its hurdle running times in a post-test, there was a significant improvement in EXP. Although CON did not significantly lengthen the horizontal clearance distance from take-off to landing in the post-test, there was a significant lengthening in EXP.
Conclusions: these findings suggest that new teaching material for teaching hurdling in physical education which aims to improve the ability to jump high and far over hurdles improves hurdle running time and improves the fundamental ability to repeat running and jumping travelling motor skills in contrast to traditional materials.
Introduction: Students of English as a foreign language must possess intercultural communicative skills in order to be able to interpret and discuss the cultural diversity that surrounds them when they use English for communicational purposes. This paper claims, and is based on the conviction, that the development of these skills takes place primarily through teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in most educational contexts. This approach is facilitated by the fact that the English language functions as the most widely used foreign language in the context of culture teaching.
Methods: Based on these considerations and with a view to theoretical and practical aspects concerning teaching material development, the presented study discusses some fundamental concepts associated with the relationship between teaching EFL, teaching cultural information and developing students’ intercultural skills. After reviewing potential theories, it adopts Byram’s (1997, 2008) Intercultural Communicative Competence model as a theoretical foundation for creating teaching materials for the purpose of developing students’ intercultural communicative skills.
Results: The study presents the results of this endeavour through the example of author-designed worksheets focusing on Canadian content, and analyses a worksheet that covers Korean immigrant culture in Canada in order to demonstrate, with the help of this example, how theoretical considerations can be put into practice in the scope of developing teaching materials with Canadian content focusing on the development of intercultural communicative skills.
Discussion: Within the scope of English as a foreign language, Byram’s (1997, 2008) Intercultural Communicative Competence model proves a very practical model to be used for the purpose of designing worksheets that develop students’ intercultural communicative skills: this is proved on the basis of the analysis of the above-mentioned worksheet. It is also demonstrated that teaching intercultural communicative skills through Canadian contents is a feasible and practicable way of introducing students to the concept of interculturality through the cultural heritage of an English-speaking country.
Limitations: The theoretical background and the teaching material development project described below can serve as a potential model for designing similar worksheets, but the actual use and efficiency of this and similar worksheets depends on the applicable national curriculum and the specificities (primarily the language and motivational levels) of the class where such materials are intended for use. This also means that some aspects of the project are worth reconsidering when one intends to design their own teaching materials.
Conclusion: For the design of worksheets developing intercultural communicative skills, this study provides a tried and tested methodological model to follow and presents a worksheet that can function as a potential model. In addition, this paper hopes to generate further research in the field of developing teaching materials focusing either on the development of intercultural communicative skills or on Canadian culture, and, through setting an example, it encourages the creation of worksheets of a comparable design or topic.
Developing the Integrated Social Science (IPS)
TeachingMaterial for the 7th-Grade SMP
Musnar Indra daulay1, Azwar Ananda2, Syafri Anwar3, Siti Fatimah4
1,2,3,4Universitas Negeri, Padang, Indonesia
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
This development research aimed at developing instructional material for integrated social
science to increase the learning achievement of the seventh-grade students in SMP. This
development had been tested for validity and its effectiveness. The research method
Traditionally, foreign language classes provide a systematic presentation and acquisition of knowledge and skills under the guidance and monitoring of a teacher. However, language is unquestionably related to culture. Being competent in a foreign language requires not only possessing the linguistic competence, but also understanding the culture that has defined and shaped it. The process of learning a foreign language involves an awareness of the culture of the target language, as well as the way it relates to one’s own culture. This paper aims, first, to deal with major issues in the foreign language classes related to creating the conditions for students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to cope with the difficulties of the intercultural situations, and second, to determine the culture-related content areas and give practical tips for teachers to employ in preparing their students for the intercultural challenge. It also points to the important role of teachers in conceiving and producing the teaching-learning resources that will enable students to gain the relevant cultural background knowledge and skills, as well as to the benefits of using culture-focused activities along with the grammar-based tasks.
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