Tax reliefs are optional, but a very important element of the taxation system. This element is used for different purposes by a country’s government institutions. Tax reliefs are a form of tax expenditure that helps to reduce budget revenues. Tax reliefs influence individual and corporate financial behaviour and can have positive or negative effects on the economic and social factors. In the last few years, expansion of tax relief has attracted worldwide attention because of the fact that, after the global financial crisis, many countries are still suffering from fiscal deficits, and expansion of tax relief has not contributed to solving this problem. Tax reliefs are presupposed to be a fiscal policy tool of significance in various subsystems of public finances. The main aim of this article is to examine the impact of personal income tax reliefs on Lithuanian public finances. To achieve this aim, statistical information was systemized; Monte Carlo method was used to group data by horizontal rows and logical links analysed, which helped to evaluate the influence of tax reliefs on public finances. In the simulations, the Monte Carlo method helped to simulate random samples, which were then examined by adapting the conclusions of the theory of probability and mathematical statistics methods.
This article explores non-stimulating regulatory environment that can effect economic activities. Specific focus is on the so-called administrative burdens as it has been established that administrative burden reduction is an internationally used policy with questionable outcomes. This is tested on a case study of Slovenian administrative burden reduction policy concluding that administrative burdens are mostly considered unnecessary but to some extent (34.5%) also necessary, however, as a subject of possible optimisation. The most burdensome is time spent in order to comply with regulation, following successiveness of the burdens (one following the other). Additionally,based on the case study policy, we can conclude that businesses are not well informed about government administrative burden reduction policies.
In this paper, the systems of real estate mass appraisal in some selected European countries will be discussed, in comparison with those of individual countries on other continents, in terms of similarities and differences in law, institutional scope and subjects responsible for its execution. With selected countries serving as an example, the practical aspects of operating the real estate owners’ taxation system will be discussed as well the data acquiring process, considered price-making factors, proceeding methodology and circumstances taken into account in real estate cadastral valuation, giving consideration to national specificity.
The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries) we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.
This article analyses the current environmental aspects and the mechanisms of environmental regulation in Kazakhstan with specific emphasis of Pavlodar Region for the development of tourism. The study showed that the environmental situation in Pavlodar Region requires the adoption of a number of activities and legal regulation for improvement and development of tourism. The improvement of tourism is very important for the regional budget and for the overall economic development of the area. It is argued that for the effective management and the development of the tourism industry, the existing taxation system that is the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan requires some amendments, sustainable development measures should put into the practice with the introduction of technological systems that based upon the use solar and wind energy, and “Green Economy” strategy should be implemented into the practical life and monitored effectively.
This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.
Tax evasion is sometimes an intended, and other times an unintended response to taxation.Willful tax evasion is more likely to occur if consensus regarding fairness and equality of the tax-code is lacking. Tax evasion is an integral part of the “underground economy”, or more formally, the Non-Observed Economy (NOE).Measuring the size and scope of the NOE in general, and tax evasion in particular, is a difficult task.We compare results from three methods for estimating the size of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the production approach, the expenditure approach, and the income approach. The results of applying these three methods should, in principle, be identical, but they are not. We use the difference, guided by historical facts and anecdotes, to give an idea of the magnitude of tax evasion during the 20th century.
We suggest that the construction of the tax system to serve special interest groups may have disrupted the social, judicial, political and economic balance of the Icelandic “project”.
This paper presents the fundamentals of the tax system in general, the basic elements of a tax system as well as the organization of the German tax system analysis, especially throughout the tax levy and how the taxation typology functions. This theme was chosen in order to expose the principles of German taxation system. With a tumultuous and troubled history, mainly caused by the two World Wars‟ destructions, the German state is considered the „economic locomotive” and a pillar of the European Union. Germany‟s economy is mainly driven by the automotive industry, chemical industry, telecommunications, commerce and agriculture. Of particular importance is the qualitative analysis of conventions for the avoidance of double taxation concluded by Germany; and related implications on fiscal policy. The methodology used in this paper consists of presenting literature derived theories and practical analysis of the German tax system in terms of tax legislation and the evolution of double taxation conventions concluded by Germany with different countries. After the study, the conclusions on the size of the national tax system driven by the example of the German tax system were founded.
: The EMU fiscal system is specific in many areas compared to other classic fiscal systems of national states. Specific features mainly reflect in the implementation of economic policy within the EMU which is carried out by combining a common centralized monetary policy under the ECB jurisdiction and decentralized fiscal policies under the jurisdiction of the member states. The member states` sovereignty in governing their fiscal policies is one of the key causes of the EU fiscal system underdevelopment, i.e. its indigent structure in relation to “standard fiscal systems”.
More indigent structure of the EU fiscal system is reflected in the fact that it consists of only three segments. The first one refers to the EU budget which is also the only instrument for implementing fiscal policy at the supranational level. The second one refers to the harmonization of taxation systems in accordance with inputs and other legislation adopted at the EU level with the aim of fostering the single internal market. Finally, the third segment refers to the fiscal policy coordination of the EMU member states related to appropriate fiscal rules, which mainly stem from the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact.
Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.
: approved by the order of Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation from 21.12.2009, № 747]. Moscow, Retrieved 14. 04.2014 from: http://www.edu.ru (in Russian).
5. Тарангул Л. (2013). V науково-практична конференція «Реформування податкової системи України відповідно до європейських стандартів»: Зб. матер. наук.-практ. конференції [5th Scientific and Practical Conference “Reforming of the Ukrainian TaxationSystem in Accordance with the European Standards”: scientific and practical conference proceedings] (31 жовтня 2013 р.). Ірпінь: Нац