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Bianca Miarka, Ciro José Brito, John Amtmann, Cláudio Córdova, Fabio dal Bello and Suzi Camey
The present study aimed to compare pacing and decision making of athletes competing in judo, with particular attention paid to effort-pause ratios occurring in the championship phases of the Olympic Games and non-Olympic Games. The sample was composed of 53,403 sequential actions analyzed during 611 performances of the non-Olympic Games (eliminatory n = 330, quarterfinals n = 60, semi-final n = 88, repechage n = 21, third place playoff n = 26, and final n = 79) and 163 from the Olympic Games (eliminatory n = 71, quarterfinals n = 13, semi-final n = 26, repechage n = 20, third place playoff n = 24, and final n = 14). The analysis of effort-pause ratios included separating bouts into states of approach, gripping, attack, groundwork and pause, according to frequency and time. A Markov multi-state model and analysis of variance were applied (p ≤ 0.05). Approach time presented differences of the eliminatory Olympic Games (7.3 ± 3.2 s) versus final non-Olympic Games (6.0 ± 2.2s), and the third place playoff Olympic Games (8.1 ± 2.3 s) versus semi-final (6.2 ± 2.4 s) and third place playoff (5.9 ± 2.1 s) of the non-Olympic Games, and the semi-final Olympic Games (8.6 ± 2.3 s) versus eliminatory (6.5 ± 2.3 s), quarter-finals (6.5 ± 1.7 s), semi-final (6.2 ± 2.4 s), repechage (6.2 ± 2.2 s), third place playoff (5.9 ± 2.1 s), and final (6.0 ± 2.0 s) of the non-Olympic Games. Pause time presented differences of the semi-final Olympic Games (6.8 ± 2.1 s) versus eliminatory (5.1 ± 3.1 s). The present data suggest a focus on pacing strategy during championship phases, which mimic the requirements of judo combats.
Fábio dal Bello, Ciro José Brito, John Amtmann and Bianca Miarka
This study compared grappling motor actions of male mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes considering outcome types from Ultimate Fighting Championship ( UFC) bouts. A validated protocol of technical-tactical analysis was utilized as in previous studies addressing MMA performance analysis, and Kruskall Wallis and U Mann-Whitney tests were applied to compare effects of types of outcome decisions (Split vs. Unanimous Decision vs. Knockout-KO/Technical-knockout-TKO vs. Submission). Unanimous Decision showed higher frequencies of takedowns attempted/round than KO/TKO and Submission outcomes (p ≤ 0.05; 1.9 ± 1.9 vs. 1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 1.0 ± 1.1 attempts). Bouts with Split Decision demonstrated higher takedowns/round than bouts ended by Submission (p = 0.048; 0.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6 attempts). TKO/KO showed lower values of sweeps/round (p = 0.008, 0.0 ± 0.0 vs. 0.1 ± 0.3 attempts) and takedowns attempted/round (p = 0.014, 1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.6 attempts) than bouts ending by Split Decision. The Submission outcome showed a higher frequency of submissions attempted/round than KO/TKO and Unanimous Decision (p ≤ 0.041, 0.3 ± 0.7 vs 0.2 ± 0.5 vs 0.2 ± 0.5). These results show a large specificity in the type of grappling attack/situation according to the strategy to end the combat. These results also show that the grappling strategy and tactics are variable depending on the strengths and weaknesses of the athletes, and can be used by coaches and athletes to develop specific training programs.
A person’s willingness to communicate (WTC), believed to stem from a combination of proximal and distal variables comprising psychological, linguistic, educational and communicative dimensions of language, appears to be a significant predictor of success in language learning. The ability to communicate is both a means and end of language education, since, on the one hand, being able to express the intended meanings in the target language is generally perceived as the main purpose of any language course and, on the other, linguistic development proceeds in the course of language use. However, MacIntyre (2007, p. 564) observes that some learners, despite extensive study, may never become successful L2 speakers. The inability or unwillingness to sustain contacts with more competent language users may influence the way learners are evaluated in various social contexts. Establishing social networks as a result of frequent communication with target language users is believed to foster linguistic development. WTC, initially considered a stable personality trait and then a result of context-dependent influences, has recently been viewed as a dynamic phenomenon changing its intensity within one communicative event (MacIntyre and Legatto, 2011; MacIntyre et al., 2011). The study whose results are reported here attempts to tap into factors that shape one’s willingness to speak during a communicative task. The measures employed to collect the data - selfratings and surveys - allow looking at the issue from a number of perspectives.
Klaus Blischke, Florian Wagner, Barbara Zehren and Sebastian Brueckner
, Hazeltine E & Heuer H. The cognitive and neural architecture of sequence representation. Psychol Rev, 2003. 110 (2): 316-339
Koch I. The role of crosstalk in dual-taskperformance: evidence from manipulating response-code overlap. Psychol Res-Psychol Fo, 2009. 73: 417-424
Manzey D. Determinanten der Aufgabeninterferenz bei Doppeltätigkeiten und ressourcentheoretische Modellvorstellungen in der Kognitiven Psychologie [Determinants of task interference in dual-task activities and resource-theoretical model conceptions in
Timing of the Vibration of Arm Muscles Affects Grip Force Control
The purpose of the study was to investigate how the timing of application of vibration to the arm muscles affects grip force. Eight healthy subjects performed similar tasks of lifting and holding an object without any vibration (NV) and with vibration applied to the extrinsic wrist and finger muscles at different times during the task: 1) applied immediately prior to the task performance (AFV) and 2) during the task performance (DFV). Peak grip force, static grip force, and acceleration of the object were recorded. Vibration applied to the muscles during the task performance did not affect grip force generation. However, when vibration was applied prior to the task performance, a significant increase in grip force was observed. We suggest that the differences in magnitudes of grip force between the conditions are associated with the availability of information from muscle spindles and/or joint and tactile afferents. It appears that vibration applied during the task performance affects only muscles spindles, while a five-minute vibration applied prior to the lift of the object affects both muscle spindles and joint and tactile afferents. The results of the study provide additional information on the availability of afferent information in the control of grip force.
Hypertension is a common problem in the elderly population. It is one of the factors determining the pattern of cognitive functioning of the patients, however the nature and severity of neuropsychological deficits are unclear. The main aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of cognitive task performance and the strategies of verbal material organization in patients with varying levels of productivity and control. The outpatients treated for hypertension (n = 46) were tested with the following neuropsychological tests and the experimental task: Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (VF). The level of productivity and control in older hypertensive patients appeared to be important variables differentiating the effectiveness of structured task performance involving the memory and learning of verbal material. Patients with weaker productivity and control show less efficiency in formulating and sustaining a learning plan expressed by the compatibility of responses in subsequent attempts. Weaker productivity and control are associated with high risk of memory problems, especially in situations characterized by a high degree of structure. It is advisable to include an evaluation of certain aspects of executive functions at the initial stage of assessment of patients at risk of brain dysfunction.
The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability who were paired up accordingly to their mental age. Each pair was given a set of developmentally adapted tasks. The tool (44 tasks) was reliable and valid. The task-support-task procedure significantly affected the level of the task performance in all the children and allowed to define the scope of potential abilities, especially in the children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. Most of the task they did fell into the zone of proximal development.
This study investigated the range of potential performance implications of transformational leadership to improve the university performance by creativity, knowledge, and innovation. We examine the relationships among innovation orientation, transformational leadership, organizational learning, and university performance using hierarchical OLS regression technique. We found that transformational leadership influences the relationship between leaders' performance (rectors, deans, and managers) and university's outcomes (teaching, research, and service) to establish how leader behaviours affect the university performance. Results reveal that transformational leadership may motivate academic staff to work harder, exerting more effort and engaged in higher levels of task performance through inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and individualized consideration. The current study shows that transformational leadership may facilitate higher levels of creativity and innovation through emphasized the knowledge integration mechanisms into university. The moderately positive relationships of transformational leadership with university performance suggest that universities should focus on selecting and promoting individuals for upper-level managerial positions with these characteristics