REFERENCES BEGUM M.AJ., SELVARAJU P., VENUDEVAN B.: Saline stress on seed germination, Scientific Research and Essays 8 (30), 1420-1423, 2013. DOŽIĆ S., ĐUKIĆ M., LUKIĆ S., ĐUNISAJEVIĆ-BOJOVIĆ D.: Reclaimation of the copper mine chatse, International conference degraded areas & ecoremediation. Belgrade, 392-400, 2010. FUKAREK P.: Red leaf sycamoremaple ( Acer pseudoplatanus f. Purpureum Rend.), Narodni šumar 3-4, 1961. (In Serbian, with English summary) GRADAČKI M., POŠTENJAK K., CRNKOVIĆ S.: Investigation of qualitative properties of the seeds, Rad. Šumar
function of precipitation and soil fertility. Plant and Soil, 258 (1/2), 43-56. Mayer H. 1992. Waldbau auf soziologisch-ökologischer Grundlage. 4. Aufl. G. Ficher Verlang, Stuttgart- Jena-New York. Macfall J.S., Johnson G.A., Kramer P.J. 1991. Comparative water uptake by roots of different ages in seedlings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). New Phytologist, 119, 551-560. Mauer O., Pop M., Palátová E. 2007. Root system development and health condition of sycamoremaple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in the air-polluted region of Krušné hory Mts. Journal of Forest Science, 53
In 2012 the development of the rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (L.) was confirmed in the sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L., a new host plant in Poland. In the laboratory, one adult beetle was reared from a branch obtained from the Magura National Park (Beskid Niski Mts., Carpathians, SE Poland). The breeding material was collected at a site located in the fertile Carpathian beech forest association Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum, in a stand with an admixture of sycamore maple trees. In the paper the importance of the sycamore maple as a host plant is discussed.
Research on urban climates has been an important topic in recent years, given the growing number of city inhabitants and significant influences of climate on health. Nevertheless, far less research has focused on the impacts of light pollution, not only on humans, but also on plants and animals in the landscape. This paper reports a study measuring the intensity of light pollution and its impact on the autumn phenological phases of tree species in the town of Zvolen (Slovakia). The research was carried out at two housing estates and in the central part of the town in the period 2013–2016. The intensity of ambient nocturnal light at 18 measurement points was greater under cloudy weather than in clear weather conditions. Comparison with the ecological standard for Slovakia showed that average night light values in the town centre and in the housing estate with an older type of public lighting, exceeded the threshold value by 5 lux. Two tree species, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.), demonstrated sensitivity to light pollution. The average onset of the autumn phenophases in the crown parts situated next to the light sources was delayed by 13 to 22 days, and their duration was prolonged by 6 to 9 days. There are three major results: (i) the effects of light pollution on organisms in the urban environment are documented; (ii) the results provide support for a theoretical and practical basis for better urban planning policies to mitigate light pollution effects on organisms; and (iii) some limits of the use of plant phenology as a bioindicator of climate change are presented.
Climate conditions in cities are constantly changing, creating a worsening environment for the growth of trees and performing their ecological functions. Qualitative evaluation of their responses to the often extreme climatic conditions and habitat for their growth is an important part of care for urban and historical greenery. This work deals with applying visual methods for the assessment of morphological characters, crown destructive manifestations and eco-physiological aspects of vitality through micromarker of quality of assimilation organs. Evaluation was carried out in two types of environment, in city of Nitra and an environmentally unloaded historical park in Nová Ves nad Žitavou. The research was conducted on six trees of species Acer pseudoplatanus L., through visual assessment and measuring the values of chlorophyll fluorescence-a. The measurement results were statistically evaluated and graphically interpreted.
The paper deals with development of the natural regeneration of even-aged spruce-beech forests during their transformation to uneven-aged stands with diversified structure at the Jedlový důl area in the Protected Landscape Area Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Shelterwood management system and free felling policy based on selection principles has been applied there since 1979 with the support of admixed tree species of the natural species composition, especially silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The research was focuses on structure and development of natural regeneration with the emphasis on ungulate damage and interaction with tree layer from 1979 to 2015. In the course of 36 years, the regeneration structure was diversified towards the close-to-nature tree species composition, spatial and age structure. The number of regeneration recruits increased in average from 941 to 41,669 ind ha-1. During this period share of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) significantly (p < 0.01) increased (by 53.6%), while the share of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) decreased (by 51.5%), such as damage caused by ungulate (by 61.4%) with the highest loses on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and silver fir. Moreover, the parent trees had a significant negative influence on natural regeneration at smaller spacing (within a 1 - 5 m radius from the stem). Both, regeneration potential and effective role of the tree layer during the forest transformation has been confirmed as important prerequisites for ongoing forest transformation.
Urbanised landscape represents composed structures of technical and biotic elements where social and economy activities create living space for human society but with strongly changed environment. To dominant characters belong climate changes with increased air temperature, drought and emission load, which has developed wide spectrum of stress factors influencing the urban vegetation. For the assessment of plant growth and adaptation response, we have used Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) as study model woody plant. In the framework of visual characters, we assessed the following indicators: (a) assimilation organs (leaf necrosis); (b) crown quality (degree of foliage and degree of dead tree crown); (c) trunk and branch quality (mechanical damage, incidence of wood destroying fungus and trunk cavities and callus healing of trunk wounds). Each indicator was assessed in five-point scale, and in the end, the common index of quality was calculated. The quality index achieved 9.33 points in the first and 10.33 in the second evaluation periods in the Nitra city and 2.66 at the both assessed periods in the comparable rural park. In the group of physiological indicators, chlorophyll a fluorescence marker and its Fv/Fm parameter were used. Within three repeating assessment during growing season (June, August and September), the average values reached Fv/Fm = 0.814 in the city and Fv/Fm = 0.829 in rural park. The results confirmed statistical significances between loaded city conditions and relatively clean rural locality. Used markers have shown as appropriate tools for growth response measurements of street trees in a changed urban environment.
and checklist of species. Vol.1. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa: 49-53, 73-76. (in Pohsh) Gutowski J.M. 2006. Saproxylic beetles. Kosmos 55(1): 53-73. (in Pohsh) HABnATS Directive 1992. Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of namral habitats and of wild fauna and flora. http://ec.europa.eu , 'en\'ironment , nature , legislation' 1 habitatsdirective (Site visited on 16.03.2012) Michalcewicz J., Bodzlarczyk J., Ciach M. 2013. Development of the rosalia longicom Rosalia alpina (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the sycamoremaple
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.A. 2001. Hydrogen peroxide acts as a second messen–ger for the induction of defense genes in tomato plants in response to wounding, systemin, and me–thyl jasmonate. Plant Cell 13: 179-191. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.13.1.179. Quiroga M., Guerrero C., Botella M.A., Barceló A., Amaya I., Medina M.I. 2000. A tomato peroxidase involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. Plant Physiol. 122: 1119-1127. DOI: 10.1104/pp.122.4.1119. Sterjiades R., Dean J.F.D., Gamble G., Himmelsbach D.S., Eriksson K.E.L. 1993. Extracellular laccases and peroxidases from sycamoremaple (Acer pseu