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(Dello: Grafiche Renzini, 2019). Gaibi, Agostino, “Un manoscritto del ‘600 ‘L’Arte Fabrile’ di Antonio Petrini”, Armi Antiche (1962), 111-139. Tonelli, Giovanna et al., “Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a ‘Falchion’ Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D”, Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials , Volume 68, Issue 8 (2016), 2233-2249. Williams, Alan, The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords up to the XVI century (Leiden: Brill, 2012).


The study deals with the possibility of exploring the La Tène swords and choosing the appropriate method of conservation intervention. The published results are based on an internal grant from the National Museum running between 2015 and 2016, which was closely focused on "The Exploration of Celtic Iron Arms from the Archaeological Collection of the National Museum" and which involved 67 items. The purpose of the internal grant was to find and to map hidden decorations or other structural elements on the La Tène swords that had been preserved in the past. Preferred were the preserved swords with unremoved layers of anti-corrosion products, whereby there is a greater presumption of the occurrence of the above-mentioned elements than when the cleaning of swords was specifically of a chemical nature.

events contribute to an atheroprone phenotype of ECs. This thesis involving SREBP2 being a master regulator under a disturbed flow is strongly supported by the increased atherosclerosis seen in the thoracic aorta of an ApoE -/- mouse line, in which the activated form of SREBP2 is overexpressed in the endothelium.[ 9 ] Conclusions In summary, several recent studies synergistically reveal that shear stress is a double-edged sword, depending upon the endothelial location in the arterial tree. Pulsatile, unidirectional flow activates the KLF4-Ch25h/LXR homeostatic axis in


The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of two strictly protected vascular plant species in managed stands of submontane acidophilous oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis - Quercetum petraeae Hilitzer 1932 association) in the Sudeten foothills (Lower Silesia, Poland). During the study, the most important stand parameters influencing the occurrence of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) and the orchid sword-leaved helleborine Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch) were ascertained. The stands ranged from 50 to 130 years of age and were dominated by sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), which comprised 5-100% of trees. Both of the protected plant species were observed in 10% of the examined plots with the most favorable type of forest stand for sword-leaved helleborine as well as the wild service tree being clearly dominated by sessile oak (portion of oak above 80%). The analysis showed that the wild service tree was found in pure oak stands, whereas sword-leaved helleborine was also recorded in mixed stands aged 50-80 years. The increased frequency of sword-leaved helleborine was associated with a higher portion of oak in the tree layer. The results suggest that the modern silviculture practices, ‘close-to-nature’ silviculture, transform pure oak forest into mixed forest and allow for natural expansion of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as well as beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which can induce the gradual disappearance of the orchid and the wild service tree in submontane acidophilous oak forests. Restoring semi-natural pure oak stands should play a significant role in supporting both protected species in submontane acidophilous oak forests of the Sudeten Region.

mortality of patients with mild infection with PaO2/FiO2 >300 mm Hg. Cao et al . [ 22 ] screened patients aged >14 years with severe influenza A (H7N9) virus infections from April 2013 to March 2015 to determine the impact of corticosteroids. They found that high-dose corticosteroid therapy (>150 mg/d methylprednisolone or equivalent) was associated with longer viral shedding and significantly increased both 30- and 60-day mortality. On the whole, corticosteroid therapy seemed to be a double-edged sword in these infectious diseases. So corticosteroids, especially high


Multiple manuscripts of Hans Talhoffer’s fifteenth-century Fechtbuch depict duels between combatants wielding faceted clubs and tall shields, as well as combatants in tight-fitting grey clothing, and duels between a man and a woman. Legal ordinances and court records from Talhoffer’s time and before him provide context for these scenarios and this equipment. Customary law regarding judicial duels varied significantly between German regions. It also changed over time, shaped by influences that sometimes originated well outside German-speaking lands. Talhoffer’s work and the Fechtbücher that followed him reflect a practice that spanned multiple regions, preserving fading traditions while embracing new innovations.


In the late 16th century two interesting individuals made substantial contributions to the relatively new genre of the autobiography. In 1595 Bartholomäus Sastrow (1520–1603), a north German burgher, notary, diplomat, and eventually burgomeister of the Hanseatic City of Stralsund, penned his life story. Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571), goldsmith, soldier, musician and famous Renaissance artist from Florence, wrote his memoir between 1558 and 1563. Though they were born twenty years apart, both men had similar backgrounds. Both were from the lower-middle strata of society but rose to high status, both were widely traveled and directly acquainted with the most powerful individuals of their time (as well as some of the most lowly) and both experienced firsthand some of the most dramatic and important political and military events of the mid-16th century.

Amidst a backdrop of war and severe religious conflict, Sastrow, a German and a Lutheran, traveled to Italy, and Cellini, an Italian Catholic, travelled through Germany to France. This allows us to see each region from both a native and an outsider’s perspective. Both men participated in or were witness to numerous incidents of social violence and warfare during their lifetimes, as described in detail in their memoirs. These accounts give us an opportunity to examine the depiction of incidents of social violence by people who witnessed or participated in them first-hand, allowing us to contrast these episodes with the principles of self-defense as portrayed in the fightbooks. We can also compare these personal anecdotes with documented written and unwritten rules governing dueling, fighting, and the carrying of arms. This will help grant us further insight into the reality of personal armed conflict in the era of the fightbooks, and improve our understanding of their context and meaning.

(2009): “Ich hab herz als ein leb... Zweikampfrealität und Tugendideal in den Fechtbüchern Hans Talhoffers und Paulus Kals“. In: Niehoff, Franz (Hrsg.) Ritterwelten im Spätmittelalter. Museen der Stadt Landshut. Landshut (Schriften aus den Museen der Stadt Landshut), p. 79-93. Tobler, Christian (2010): In Saint George’s Name. Wheaton: Freelance Academy Press. Waldmann, Szablocs (2008): “Mertein Hündsfelder: Fight Lesson with the Shortened Sword“. In: Clements, John (Hrsg.) Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial Arts: Rediscovering the Western Combat Heritage

. Anthropological Notebooks, 18(3), pp. 13. McDOWELL, M.A., FRYAR, C.D., OGDEN, C.L. and FLEGAL, K.M., 2008. Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: United States, 2003-2006. 10. National Health Statistics Report: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. PANOFSKY, E., 1955. The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. IV. edn. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press. THIBAULT D’ ANVERS, G., 1630, Academy of the Sword: wherein is demonstrated by mathematical rules on the foundation of a mysterious circle the theory and practice of the true and heretofore unknown

, soit de mer, et sur les stratagèmes de guerre curieux et remarquables (Paris, F. Louis, 1808). Thérèse Figueur, Les campagnes de mademoiselle Thérèse Figueur, aujourd’hui Madame Veuve Sutter, ex-dragon aux 15e et 9e régimens, de 1793 a 1815, écrites sous sa dictée par St.-Germain Leduc (Paris: Dauvin et Fontaine, 1842). X.2. Secondary sources Amberger, Christopher, The secret history of the sword: Adventures in ancient martial arts (Burbank: Multi-Media Books, 1999). Amberger, Christopher, Saber fencing: Germany, 1838 (2008), available from Fencingclassics <https