Martial Arts , exhibition catalog (Dello: Grafiche Renzini, 2019).
Gaibi, Agostino, “Un manoscritto del ‘600 ‘L’Arte Fabrile’ di Antonio Petrini”, Armi Antiche (1962), 111-139.
Tonelli, Giovanna et al., “Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a ‘Falchion’ Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D”, Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials , Volume 68, Issue 8 (2016), 2233-2249.
Williams, Alan, The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords up to the XVI century (Leiden
The study deals with the possibility of exploring the La Tène swords and choosing the appropriate method of conservation intervention. The published results are based on an internal grant from the National Museum running between 2015 and 2016, which was closely focused on "The Exploration of Celtic Iron Arms from the Archaeological Collection of the National Museum" and which involved 67 items. The purpose of the internal grant was to find and to map hidden decorations or other structural elements on the La Tène swords that had been preserved in the past. Preferred were the preserved swords with unremoved layers of anti-corrosion products, whereby there is a greater presumption of the occurrence of the above-mentioned elements than when the cleaning of swords was specifically of a chemical nature.
. Landshut (Schriften aus den Museen der Stadt Landshut), p. 79-93. Tobler, Christian (2010): In Saint George’s Name. Wheaton: Freelance Academy Press.
Waldmann, Szablocs (2008): “Mertein Hündsfelder: Fight Lesson with the Shortened Sword“. In: Clements, John (Hrsg.) Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial Arts: Rediscovering the Western Combat Heritage. Boulder: Paladin Press, p. 239-249.
Waldmann, Szablocs (2013): “Mertein Hündsfelder: Fechtleher mit dem Kurzen Schwert, circa 1491 AD. Fight-teachings with the Shortened Sword from Codex
Habitat demands and population characteristics of the rare plant species Gladiolus imbricatus L. in the Frenštát region (NE Moravia, the Czech Republic)
The sword lily (Gladiolus imbricatus L.) is an endangered species belonging to plant communities of wet meadows. Such meadows decreased in area in central Europe during the second half of the 20th century, and unsuitable biotope management has led to recent decreases in sword lily abundance. The conservation of geophytes (i.e. perennial plants with underground storage organ) like the sword lily requires knowledge of their essential environmental factors and population dynamics. Five populations of the sword lily were assessed at sites near Frenštát pod Radhoštěm (the Czech Republic). From 2008-2010 all individuals (generative, vegetative, juvenile) were counted, biometric data was measured (leaves, flowers, fruits number, and stalk height), a transient matrix was created, and vegetation (relevés) evaluated.
The number of all individuals in generative, vegetative and juvenile stage at these sites underwent year-to-year variability. Nevertheless, the influence of management practices was documented, and was also slightly reflected in both biometric parameters and population abundance. The height, number of leaves and number of blossoms did not show clear temporal or site variability. High reproductive success in this gladiolus was found (61.8-77.8 %), yet seed recruitment is crucial for population stability. In contrast to orchids, each flowering individual had a high probability of flowering to the next season (40 %) and did not switch to the dormant or vegetative stage. About 50 % of individuals tended to stay in dormancy for two years. Unfortunately, the short observation period and inability to estimate the number of dormant individuals made it impossible to determine the length of dormancy, an accurate population structure, and long-term population responses to climate factors. Still, our results confirm the ecological linkage of gladiolus with a broad gradient of moisture, and their connection with mesic Arrhenatherum meadows and intermittently wet Molinia meadows. Long-term regular extensive management is essential for the persistence of populations at all study sites. Self-sowing tree species should be pruned away and herb vegetation cut down each season to provide safe sites for gladiolus seed recruitment.
, these pathophysiological events contribute to an atheroprone phenotype of ECs. This thesis involving SREBP2 being a master regulator under a disturbed flow is strongly supported by the increased atherosclerosis seen in the thoracic aorta of an ApoE -/- mouse line, in which the activated form of SREBP2 is overexpressed in the endothelium.[ 9 ]
In summary, several recent studies synergistically reveal that shear stress is a double-edged sword, depending upon the endothelial location in the arterial tree. Pulsatile, unidirectional flow activates the
The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of two strictly protected vascular plant species in managed stands of submontane acidophilous oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis - Quercetum petraeae Hilitzer 1932 association) in the Sudeten foothills (Lower Silesia, Poland). During the study, the most important stand parameters influencing the occurrence of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) and the orchid sword-leaved helleborine Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch) were ascertained. The stands ranged from 50 to 130 years of age and were dominated by sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), which comprised 5-100% of trees. Both of the protected plant species were observed in 10% of the examined plots with the most favorable type of forest stand for sword-leaved helleborine as well as the wild service tree being clearly dominated by sessile oak (portion of oak above 80%). The analysis showed that the wild service tree was found in pure oak stands, whereas sword-leaved helleborine was also recorded in mixed stands aged 50-80 years. The increased frequency of sword-leaved helleborine was associated with a higher portion of oak in the tree layer. The results suggest that the modern silviculture practices, ‘close-to-nature’ silviculture, transform pure oak forest into mixed forest and allow for natural expansion of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as well as beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which can induce the gradual disappearance of the orchid and the wild service tree in submontane acidophilous oak forests. Restoring semi-natural pure oak stands should play a significant role in supporting both protected species in submontane acidophilous oak forests of the Sudeten Region.
In this paper I will describe the adventurous history of an important late medieval German fechtbuch—a fighting manual—that belongs to a number of manuscripts known as the Gladiatoria group. In the beginning, the extent and the characteristics of this group of codices are explained; later on I will deal with one specific specimen that formerly belonged to a library in Germany—the Herzogliche Bibliothek in Gotha—from where it vanished during or after World War II. Until quite recently this manuscript was believed to be lost. I was able to identify a Gladiatoria manuscript from the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut, as that missing manuscript. The article presents a detailed description of the manuscript; it follows the path of the many places the codex passed through from the days of its creation until the present time; it offers a thorough line of argument that proves on one hand that the manuscript from New Haven is in fact identical to the one that disappeared from Gotha, and that verifies on the other hand an assumption by the renowned researcher Hans-Peter Hils that it is identical to yet another believed-to-be-lost manuscript that was sold by auction in Heidelberg in the 1950s and 1960s as single leaves; and finally it makes an attempt to reconstruct the original structure of the manuscript after it had been pulled apart.
Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.
Sword: wherein is demonstrated by mathematical rules on the foundation of a mysterious circle the theory and practice of the true and heretofore unknown secrets of handling arms on foot and horseback;
Translation and foreword by: Greer, John Michael. (2005)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION, 1995. Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. 854. Switzerland: World Health Organisation.