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, Pandya SM. Seasonal changes in microbial biomass and enzyme activities in some soils of western India. Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc. 2006; 8, 69 -73. 5. Chandran MDS, Mesta DK, Naik MB. Myristica swamps of Uttara Kannada District. My Forest, 1999; 35, 217-222. 5. Gordon RE. The ecology of soil bacteria, TRG Gray and Parkinson, Liverpool University Press, 1967. 6. Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT,Williams ST. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, London, 1994. 7. Krishnamoorthy K. Myristica swamps in the evergreen


This paper presents a case study on the relationship between inhabitants of a South Moravian village and the local swamp/wetland. Two different approaches were identified for this particular locality; one was called “everyday” approach and the second “environmental” approach. The disparity of these approaches is documented in the way the individual participants construct, by means of various symbols and meanings, a symbolic system relating to this locality. Environmental experts speak about the “wetland”, whose dominant purpose is life, and they undertake measures for its protection. On the other hand, from the point of view of the everyday approach, the “swamp” is perceived as wilderness, represented by the myth that death is playing its key role. This approach, based on traditional concepts of mythology, is far removed from the environmental approach, which is based on the sign system of science. This disparity then presents a source of misunderstanding and possible conflicts between the individual parties.

Geologists Memoir 48, Tulsa, 239–248. Droser, M.L. & Bottjer, D.J., 1986. A semi quantitative field classification of ichnofabric. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 56, 558–559. Egbu, O.C., Obi, G.C., Okogbue, C.O. & Mode, A.W., 2009. Ichnofacies and reservoir properties of shoreline deposit in the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of the Niger Delta. [In:] AAPG International Conference and Exhibition , South Africa, Cape Town, p.1–7. Ekdale, A.A.,1985. Paleoecology of marine endobenthos. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 50, 63–81. Ekdale, A.A. 1988. Pitfalls of

for international classification, correlation and communication. 2nd Ed. FAO, World Soil Resources Reports No. 103, Rome, Italy. Wroblicky, G.J., Campana, M.E., Valett, H.M., Dahm, C.N., 1998. Seasonal variation in surface-subsurface water exchange and lateral hyporheic area of two stream-aquifer systems. Water Resour. Res., 34, 3, 317‒328. Zúñiga-Feest, A., Bustos-Salazar, A., Alves, F., Martínez, V., Smith-Ramírez, C., 2017. Physiological and morphological responses to permanent and intermittent waterlogging in seedlings of four evergreen trees of temperate swamp

Kučlín (Czech Republic): overview and new remarks. – Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B – Historia Naturalis, 67(3-4): 145–148. Sakınç, M., Aras, A., Yaltırak, C., Batı, Z., Çağatay, N. (2007): Trakya Karasal Tersiyerinde Silisleşmiş Ağaçlar, Paleoflora, Paleoklimatoloji, Paleocoğrafya [Silicified trees in Tertiary of Thrace: Paleoflora, Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography]. – Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Project Number: 103Y137. (in Turkish) Satchell, L. S. (1985): Climate and depositional environment of Glyptostrobus forest swamps that

vegetation science. Ordination and classification of communities. Part 5. Junk, Hague, pp. 617–726. Wheeler, B. D. 1980: Plant communities of rich-fen systems in England and Wales. Journal of Ecology, 68: 365–395. Yaschenko, P. T. & Turich, V. V. 2007: Swamp-grass marsh ( Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl.) as a rare species of the flora of the Shatsk National Nature Park and the results of monitoring according to its locality. National Forestry University of Ukraine. Scientific bulletin 17(5): 30–37 [in Ukrainian]. Zscheile, K. & Schubert, J. (eds.) 2010: Anleitung für die

. 2009a. Opracowanie metod zagospodarowania i ochrony leśnych siedlisk hydrogenicznych w kontekście zachodzących zmian sukcesyjnych. Dokumentacja IBL. Czerepko J., Wróbel M., Boczoń A., Sokołowski K. 2009b. The response of ash-alder swamp forest to increasing stream water level caused by damming by the European beaver ( Castor fiber L.). Journal of Water and Land Development , 13a: 249-262. Czerepko J., Sokołowski K., Kułagin D., Wróbel M., Boczoń A. 2009c. Ocena zmian różnorodności biologicznej na siedlisku olsu jesionowego z punktu widzenia jego restytucji i

References Adegoke, A.K., 2012. Sequence Stratigraphy of Some Middle to Late Miocene Sediments Coastal Swamp Depobelts, Western Offshore Niger Delta. International Journal of Science and Technology 2, 18-27. Avbovbo, A.A., 1978. Tertiary lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 62, 295-300. Boggs, S., 1995. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall, 774 pp. Buatois, L.A., Gingras, M., Maceachern, J.A., Mangono, M.G., Zonneveld, J.P., Pemberton, S.G., Netto, R.G. & Martin, A., 2005


The early sedimentological and ecological developmental stages of a late Vistulian lake in the Żabieniec swamp near Łódź (central Poland) were analysed by radiometric dating, changes in the frequency of specimens and species composition of Cladocera and multivariate statistical analysis (DCA). The longevity of the lake resulted in a fairly complete sedimentary record from approximately 22 ka to 11 ka cal BP. Species composition and the variability in the frequency of Cladocera specimens has made it possible to distinguish eleven zones of their development, which are well correlated with radiocarbon data. The results were compared to those from other sites of north and central Europe. The initial Cladocera development comprises the richest and oldest late Vistulian Cladocera record in Europe. These cladoceran assemblages show that a deep, oligotrophic, moderately cold-water lake was present at the beginning. It appears that the cladoceran development was mainly due to climate change, but also to changes in locally prevailing conditions in the water body. The high frequency of cladocerans, as well as the presence of cladoceran taxa preferring warmer water, was noted before approximately 16 ka BP. The biota suggests that the Oldest Dryas cooling was not severe and fairly variable in terms of humidity and temperature. The changes in Cladocera composition give evidence of what is described as the Intra-Bølling Cold Oscillation. It is also concluded that the Bølling is represented by two phases in the Żabieniec lake sediments.

REFERENCES Abowei, J.F.N. (2000) Aspects of the fisheries of the lower Nun River Ph.D., Thesis, Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 180 pages. Akari, E. J. (1992) Identification of common fresh water fishes of a stretch of Orashi river HND project, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 45 pages. Akani, G.C., Aifesehi, P.E.E., Petrozzi, F., Luiselli, L. (2014b) Aspects of community ecology of reptiles in the swamp forests of the Upper Orashi