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of model forests are the initiators of innovative solutions to the issues of balanced forest management. The decision on the management of model forests is developed by coordinating the interests of all stakeholders, public discussion and approval by both executive authorities and public institutions. These principles, criteria, goals and fundamental provisions of sustainable forestry functioning can be successfully implemented in the conditions of the formation of model forests in the regions of Ukraine. Methodological approaches to forming model forests in

Sustainable forestry in financial times

Sustainability has been a guiding principle of forestry in Europe for the last two hundred years, but at present the principle of sustainability is challenged by global economic pressures, ‘limits to growth’ are unavoidable in the global civilization, but this does not mean that nothing should grow!

Money permits us to use markets to differentiate production and to exchange goods and services. Forestry firms, like all others, are bound to earn more money than their costs of production. In the 19th century investment calculation was first developed by foresters to account for the fact that forestry production necessarily depends on the natural environment which, in financial terms, requires a long-term investment. However, discussions on the ‘soil rent theory’ and efforts to maximize profits from forestry production turned out to be a complete failure. We ask what can we learn from the history of forestry; that in the real world development, society and economics can only be shaped within the limits of nature, technology and human behaviour. Financial thinking may influence the status of the economy, and cannot be changed by intelligent technology, but financial interests shouldn't govern economic thinking to the exclusion of all else.

The latest financial crash and its consequences have demonstrated the dangers of the monetarian ideology, and consequently, we believe that a new concept of new sustainable economic order is needed, in which nature, labour, and technology must be considered as production factors of equal weight. Currently, there is an over-emphasis on ‘capital’ which has traditionally been considered as a production factor in economics, and is weighted to favour monetary interest. However, the politically declared aim of economics in democracy is human interest, and the conservation of nature or ecological interest is required for sustainable production.

What is meant by ‘financial times’? That business leaders as well as politicians generally overvalue the monetary component of the economy, which in consequence skews their view on reality, society and ecology. Banking must support highly specialized production and markets for the exchange of goods. So called financial industries offer ephemeral ‘product’, which are not goods nor services but just ‘money-making’. Their profits and exorbitant wages are depriving working people of revenue and technological resources.

Solutions to the problems of forest economics are to be found outside forestry and contemporary forest policies. The concepts are available that could improve the system, and two of them will be outlined here, although currently there is little evidence that they are likely to be adopted in the present European political system. Nevertheless, sustainable development has been an official policy of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Develeopment (UNCD) since 1992, and we should continue to discuss and promote it.

Abstract

The article analyzes the development of voluntary forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) system in Russia. The article is based on the review of diverse information sources, analysis of the reports of timber processing enterprises, personal observations during certification audits, discussions in workgroups, and information collected at training courses. We evaluated the present state of voluntary forest certification in Russia, analyzed non-compliances of the activity of Russian wood processing enterprises with the national standard FSC-STD-RUS-V6-1-2012 and indicated possible reasons for non-fulfillment of the requirements. We also presented problems in the development of forest certification in Russia and possible ways for its further development.

By the end of 2015, about 40 million hectares were certified, approximately 160 certificates were issued on forest management and 440 certificates on chain of custody. The 6th principle of the national forest management standard is the most problematic for logging enterprises. The principle concerns the requirements on the evaluation of impact of enterprise’s activity on the environment. About 40% of non-compliances identified by auditors referred to the indicators of the 6th principle.

We argue that the main problems of forest certification development in Russia are contradictions between the principles and the criteria of FSC and the requirements of Russian forest legislation, retention of biodiversity and high conservation value forests, lack of economic incentives for introduction and implementation of certification requirements, and high cost of audits. Despite the existing problems, the certification remains one of the most important instruments for achieving sustainable forest management in Russia.

Abstract

The aim of our work was to assess the direction of change taking place in the forests of the regional directorates of State Forests (rdSF) based on measurable indicators used to assess sustainable development. Based on a synthetic index (Z), changes in the years 1993−2013 were evaluated for individual directorates. We identified the regions with the highest and lowest rates of change in terms of sustainable development dynamics. The analysis was performed using spatiotemporal variables and the main criterion for selecting the diagnostic variables was their availability and comparability over the analysed period. The rdSF variation was assessed with the synthetic index (Z), using the method of zero unitarisation. In 1993−2013, favourable changes over time were indeed recorded, reflecting the progress in implementing practices supporting sustainable development in forestry. However, large differences exist between the regional managements in this respect. For the analysed period, the most favourable conditions from the perspective of sustainable forest management were maintained in rdSF Kraków, rdSF Białystok and rdSF Toruń, while the least desirable conditions were found in rdSF Zielona Góra, rdSF Piła and rdSF Warsaw. The greatest rates of beneficial change, on the other hand, were found in rdSF Szczecin, rdSF Kraków and rdSF Wrocław. In turn, the lowest rates of change of the synthetic index (Z) were observed in the directorates of Katowice, Piła and Łódź. In summary, measurable indicators of sustainable development are a good instrument for measuring the pace of change in sustainable forestry. They are an effective tool for assessing and reporting progress over time and should also be used when planning and implementing development strategies.

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Policy. Journal of Forestry, 109:7–50. Moravčík, M., Bednárová, D., Kovalčík, M., Kunca, A., Longauerová, V., Oravec, M. et al., 2019: Report on the Forest Sector of the Slovak Republic 2018 – GREEN REPORT. Bratislava, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic, 64 p. Nijnik, M., Bizikova, L., 2007: The European Union Sustainable Forest Management and Climate Change mitigation policies from transition country´s perspective. In: Reynolds, K. M. et al. (eds.): Sustainable Forestry: From Monitoring and Modelling to Knowledge Management and Policy

.K., Gout, R.T. 2006. Growth and production of half-sibs progenies of Pinus sylvestris L. (in Ukrainian with English summary). Scientific Bulletin of UNFU , 16 (3), 52–58. Maslakov, E.L. 1980. On the growth and differentiation of trees in young stands of pine (in Russian). In: The recovery and reclamation of forests of the North-West of the RSFSR (eds.: V.E. Maksimov et al.), LenSRIF, Leningrad, Russian SFSR, 53–61. Mazhula, O.S. 2000. Forest breeding at the service of sustainable forestry development (in Ukrainian). Scientific Herald of the National Agrarian

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