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Abstract

The article analyzes the current state of production of second generation biofuels in the world and evaluates the possibility of launching such production in Ukraine. The work is topical due to the fact that liquid biofuels can replace a certain share of motor fuels consumed in Ukraine, thus contributing to the strengthening of the country’s energy independence. The purpose of the study is to assess feasibility of a project on the production of second generation bioethanol in Ukraine; the task is to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for such a project. The analysis of the study of pure co-substrate fermentation and as a supplement for cattle manure proves that the maximum biogas yield obtained using alcohol stillage in a ratio of 40-80% increased compared to fermentation of pure cattle manure. The use of pure bards compared to the bard and the slurry mixture increases the maximum yield of biogas. It was found that the biogas obtained from the use of alcohol stillage is a high con-sumption of biogas with the methane content of between 70 and 78%.

Abstract

The article presents the results of observations and research on the dynamics of exogenous erosion processes on the shores of lowland reservoirs in Belarus. Features and regularities of the dynamics of development of exogenous shores subject to abrasion-processing and an assessment of planned and profile stability of coastal slopes on the basis of proposed criteria are presented. The relationship between exogenous processes and accumulation processes was determined, the approaches and criteria for determining the stability of reservoir shores based on the hydrological regime of reservoirs and ground conditions were developed.

Abstract

In the case of economic and social wealth, it is strategically essential to provide reliable energy sources which are available in long-term. Setting an energy network which suits the sustainable criteria might take a long time. Therefore, it is important to make decisions on the energy sector in advance. The Hungarian National Energy strategy elaborated on certain scenarios towards 2030, which describe the possible electricity generation opportunities up to 2020 and 2030. For 2020, there is already an accurate recommendation, but in case of the 2030 targets, there are several ways for innovation. Out of all, the realization of the “Nuclear-Carbon-Green” scenario seems most likely to be implemented. It implies the obvious involvement of nuclear energy potential development in the future strategies. Considering this trend, the present study divides the mentioned strategy into “Nuclear-Carbon” and “Nuclear-Green” scenarios to compare their long-term efficiency by economic means.

Abstract

Sustainable heating solutions involving renewable energy sources and low supply/return temperatures for district heating are evolving. Low temperature use in district heating allows reducing the heating operation costs significantly and at the same time holding the sustainability criteria. However, an in-depth study on environmental impacts during the life cycle of low temperature district heating was not conducted until now. Thus, this study aims to find the best development scenarios for development of local low temperature district heating. For this purpose, a methodology adopts life cycle analysis approach that allows assessing the environmental impacts according to a variety of environmental performance criterions. The results of the study showed an improvement in the overall environmental performance towards the transition of a conventional 3rd generation district heating to low temperature concept including the effects of reconstruction and modernization of the boiler house. A set of potential development is proposed. Specifically, the scenario implementing low temperature district heating with solar PV showed the best score for environmental performance. The scenario with implementation of low temperature district heating without solar PV did not show significant improvement in environmental performance under operation conditions of a pilot case study.

Local food and reneweable energy as emerging new alternatives of rural sustainability in Finland

The rurality of small Northern countries such as Finland has traditionally been based on family farm practices. However, rural sustainability is polarizing between the large-scale industrial agriculture and the more regional and multifunctional small-scale specialisations. This paper addresses small-scale entrepreneurship which aims at enhancing sustainable livelihood and sustainable development on farms. We identify two main lines of pioneering rural entrepreneurship in Finland, local food and renewable energy. Firstly, it is asked what kind of barriers and development targets these new productions are expected to have. Secondly, to what extent do they reflect real transformation as described particularly by the multifunctionality and ecological modernisation thinking? The two empirical case studies were carried out in Central Finland. We find that individual farms begin to identify the importance of mutual networking while establishing new businesses meeting the sustainability criteria. This certainly indicates social transformation. However, we also conclude that farmers in Central Finland seldom go for radical alternative productions imitating strong ecological modernisation.

References 1. Dzięgielewski W., Karp G., Factors and Threats Regarding Sustainability criteria Meeting In Chain of Fuels` Biocomponents Production in Poland; Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 22, No. 6A (2013), ss. 7 – 11. 2. Kaźmierczak U., Kulczycki A., The Possibilities of Biocomponents to Meet the Sustainability Criteria Turing years 2017 and 2018 in the Extend of GHG Emission by Modification of their Production Technology and using RES in Energy Infrastructure, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 22, No. 6A (2013), ss. 18 – 21. 3

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) Potential benefits of linking the Green Investment Scheme of the Kyoto Protocol with institutional voluntary markets like the Chicago Climate Exchange. In: ENVECON - UK Network of Environmental Economics Conference, London, 14 p. [7] Fogarassy, C. (2014) The Interpretation of Sustainability Criteria using Game Theory Models (Sustainable project development with Rubik’s Cube), Budapest; Paris: L’ Harmattan Publisher, p.117 https://www.scribd.com/doc/250370912/Fogarassy-Rubik-Model-Eng-Harmattan-Publisher-2014 [8] Fogarassy C., Horvath B., Szoke L., Kovacs A. (2015) Low