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. Certain neighbourhoods of Luanda are very expensive, resembling some of the world’s most expensive cities, yet the poverty level is high and an estimated two-thirds of the people survive on very meagre incomes. Since 2002, the government has been enforcing evictions, while the demolition of poor areas to make way for shopping centres and gated condominiums for Angola’s elite has also been a recurrent theme ( Gastrow 2017 ). A high number of slums is currently still situated in the centre of the city. This is a specific and distinctive characteristic of Luanda in the

became more homogenous and orderly. Nowa Ruda Nowa Ruda and its square date back to 1442, when fairs and markets officially began to be organized ( Eysymontt 2009 : 432). The size of the square (85 x 65m) dominates the town and is well depicted on the lithography from 1736 by F. A. Pompejus ( Neurode aus der Vogelschau im Jahre 1736 , n. d.). The town centre was destroyed by fire in the 19th century and later rebuilt, surviving mostly in this state until today. Unfortunately, after the WWII the process of stagnation and gradual destruction began. According to the

distinguished by anything special. Their appearance resembled the idea of simplicity, ugliness, poverty and poor execution, although paradoxically many of these constructions have survived the numerous earthquakes that regularly haunt the city. The real wealth of the residential architecture of old Algiers is in the interior of the house. The vertical structure of buildings includes columns and brick arches ( Abdessemed-Foufa 2011 : 5) and various elements used to decorate the houses of the Casbah: wooden balustrades, decorated doors, capitals and ceramic tiles for floors and

commemoration and its narrative. Nevertheless, neither memory nor commemoration is a straightforward, simple, one-way road: both individual and collective memory is subject to constant reformulation, whereas a proliferation of commemorations and politics of remembrance explains why memorials have a difficult task when tempting to address the multiplicities of memories (if they wish to at all). Still, there are monuments, like the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, which have not only managed to survive various regimes, but - if one considers the millions of tourists who visit it each

returned to its former frame, and then moved about a hundred miles west. With each of these stages, the border of the Western world was also moving (...) but history also shows that arbitrary borders, albeit the most unstable, on the other hand, survive the most persistently in human consciousness precisely because of the representations they carry’ ( Gerva & Rose 2010 : 188). The greatest wave of pastelization has passed. With economic stabilization, the need for proving one’s progressive, full European identity to the West is slowly disappearing. As the necessity of