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REFERENCES 1. Vilitis, O., Rutkis, M., Busenbergs, J., and Merkulovs, D. (2016). Determination of contact potential difference by the Kelvin probe (Part I). 1. Basic principles of measurements probe. Latv. J. Phys. Techn. Sci., 2 , 48–57. 2. Palevsky, H., Swank, R.K., and Grenchik, R. (1947). Design of dynamic condenser electrometers. Rev. Sci. Instrum , 18 , 298–314. 3. Mitchinson, J.C., Prongle, R.D., and Farvis, W.E.J. (1971). Surface potential measurement using a rotating dynamic capacitor. J.phys., E 4, 525–529. 4. Petit-Cloerc, Y., and Carette, J

Kelvin microprobe system and process for analyzing a surface. US Patent Nr. US 7084661 B2. 10. Filipavičivs, V., Gaidys, R., Matulaitis, V.A., Petrauskas, G., Sakalas, A., and Sakalauskas, A. (1987). Investigation of the surface states in heavily doped GaAs by Kelvin probe. Phys. Stat. Sol. 99 , 543–547. 11. Lange, I., Blakeslay, J.C., Frisch, J., Vollmer, A., Koch, N., and Neher, D. (2011). Band bending in conjugated polymer layers. Phys. Rev. Letters 106, 216402-1–216402-4. 12. Vilitis, O., Fonavs, E., and Muzikante, I. (2001). A system for measuring surface

, E., Stiller, B., Brehmer, L. (2005). Photoinduced phenomena in organised polar organic films. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 116 , 133-141. Vilitis, O., Fonavs, E., & Muzikante, I. (2001). A system for measuring surface potential by the Kelvin-Zisman vibrating capacitor probe. Latvian J. Phys. Techn. Sci. , (5), 38-56. Dobulans, R., Cepite, D., Fonavs, E., & Muzikante, I. (2004). Studies of host-guest thin films of corona-poled betaine-type polar molecules by Kelvin probe technique and atomic force microscopy. Macromol. Symp., 212 , 421

priori model independent inverse potential mapping: The impact of electrode positioning. Clinical Research in Cardiology, 105, 79-88. [15] Lux, R.L., Smith, R.F., Abildskov, J.A. (1978). Limited lead selection for estimating body surface potentials in electrocardiography. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 25 (3), 270-276. [16] Hoekema, R., Uijen, G.J., van Oosterom, A. (1999). On selecting a body surface mapping procedure. Journal of Electrocardiology, 32 (2), 93-101. [17] Cheng, L.K., Sands, G.B., Pullan, A.J. (2005). Construction of patient specific


The optically induced switching of electrical properties of indandione type molecules, which consist of acceptor and donor groups, are investigated. Both calculation and experimental results show a reversible highly dipolar photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in 2-(4'-N, N-dimethylaminobenzyliden)indan-1,3-dione molecule (DMABI). Kelvin's probe technique is applied to investigate the surface potential of a host-guest polymer film with four different DMABI derivatives. The derivatives have been chosen to compare the influence of the geometry, concentration and dipole moment of a molecule in the ground and excited states on the response time and amplitude of photoinduced surface potential. It is shown that the time of fast response (up to several seconds) to irradiation is independent of the concentration of molecules in a polymer film. Dependence of the amplitudes of photoinduced changes in the surface potential on the molecules concentration is observed for DMABI and its three derivatives. The optimal concentration of guest molecules in the polymer matrix is in the range 10-25 wt% (depending on the molecule).

Identification of Ischemic Lesions Based on Difference Integral Maps, Comparison of Several ECG Intervals

Ischemic changes in small areas of myocardium can be detected from difference integral maps computed from body surface potentials measured on the same subject in situations with and without manifestation of ischemia. The proposed method for their detection is the inverse solution with 2 dipoles. Surface potentials were recorded at rest and during stress on 10 patients and 3 healthy subjects. Difference integral maps were computed for 4 intervals of integration of electrocardiographic signal (QRST, QRSU, STT and STU) and their properties and applicability as input data for inverse identification of ischemic lesions were compared. The results showed that better (more reliable) inverse solutions can be obtained from difference integral maps computed either from QRST or from STT interval of integration. The average correlation between these maps was 97%. The use of the end of U wave instead of the end of T wave for interval of integration did not improve the results.


The electrical impedance method of peripheral vein detection is a novel approach, which offers the advantages of not being expensive and the capability of minimizing and reducing the difficulty of achieving intravenous access in many patients, especially pediatric and obese patients. The electrical impedance method of peripheral vein detection is based on the measurement of electrical impedance using the 4-electrode technique by applying a known alternating current of frequency 100 kHz and constant amplitude to a set of current electrodes and measuring the resulting surface potential at two separate electrodes. This paper presents the results of investigations to estimate the efficiency of this method.


In this study, woven fabrics with numerous electrostatic charges and desirable charge stability were investigated. A kind of core–shell monofilaments with different melting points between outer and inner layers were applied to wove the fabrics. These fabrics were hot coated through tourmaline particles as an charge enhancer at 122°C. Benefiting from the anions released by tourmaline particles and optimized content of the particles, the fabrics were endowed with surface potentials from −10 to −160 V and the voids content decreased from 45.4% to 41.2%, which contribute to the improvement in the filtration performance of the fabrics. A filtration mechanism was proposed while incremental surface charges with increasing tourmaline particles content have been confirmed through the noncontact measurement of electrostatic charges. The resultant fabrics exhibited a high filtration efficiency of 64.8% and superior long-term service performance. This study can provide a new application of the screen window for PM 2.5 governance.

Biomagnetism. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Barr, R.C., Ramsey, M., Spach, M.S. (1977). Relating epicardial to body surface potentials by means of transfer coefficients based on geometry measurements. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. , 24 , 1-11. Oostendorp, T.F., van Oosterom, A. (1989). Source parameter estimation in inhomogeneous volume conductors of arbitrary shape. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. , 36 , 382-391. Huiskamp, G.J.M. (1998). Simulation of depolarization and repolarization in a membrane-equations-based model of the anisotropic ventricle. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. , 45

body surface potential mapping. Medical Science Monitor , 17 (3), MT26-MT33. Karas, S., Nagyova, E., Rosik, V., Tysler, M. (2009). Measuring module for high-resolution multichannel electrocardiograph. In Trends in Biomedical Engineering: Proceedings of the 8th Czech-Slovak Conference. Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, STU Publishing House, 31-36. Khaddoumi, B., Rix, H., Meste, O., Fereniec, M., Maniewski, R. (2006). Body surface ECG signal shape dispersion. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering , 53 (12 Part1), 2491-2500. Robinson, M. R., Curzen