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humans. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 1984;11(4):251-79. 4. De Luca CJ. The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics. J Appl Biomech 1997;13:135-63. 5. Green LA, Christie A, Gabriel DA. Spike shape analysis for the surface and needle electromyographic interference pattern. Biomed Signal Process Control 2017;36:1-10. 6. Chowdhury RH, Reaz MB, Ali MA, Bakar AA, Chellappan K, Chang TG. Surface electromyography signal processing and classification techniques. Sensors (Basel) 2013;13(9):12431-66. doi: 10.3390/s130912431. 7. Nurhanim K, Elamvazuthi I, Vasant P, Ganesan T

References Ali MA, Sundaraj K, Ahmad RB, Ahamed NU, Anamul M, Islam SSM. Evaluation of triceps brachii muscle strength during grip force exercise through surface electromyography. Biomed Res-India , 2014; 25: 351-6 Alizadehkhaiyat O, Fisher AC, Kemp GJ, Vishwanathan K, Frostick SP. Shoulder muscle activation and fatigue during a controlled forceful hand grip task. J Electromyogr Kinesiol , 2011; 21: 478-82 Ángyán L, Antal C, Ángyán Z. Reproduction of reaching movements to memorized targets in the lack of visual control. Acta Physiol Hung , 2007; 94: 179

signal analysis: Detection, processing, classification and applications. Biol. Proced. Online , 8 (1), 11-35. Kumar, D. K., Pah, N. D., Bradley, A. (2003). Wavelet analysis of surface electromyography to determine muscle fatigue. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. , 11 (4), 400-406. Walker, J. (1999). A Primer on Wavelets and Their Scientific Applications. Chapman & Hall. Nikias, C. L., Petropulu, A. P. (1993). Higher-Spectral Analysis: A Nonlinear Signal Processing Framework. Prentice Hall. Hinich, M. J. (1982). Testing for gaussianity and linearity of a

DLS, a DLSB and a SLSB. Once considered eligible for the study and consented to participate, participants were required to attend the laboratory on two different occasions. On the first visit, participants were assessed for body mass and height. In addition, they were familiarised with all the exercises. The second visit intended to determine participants’ maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) before performing the DLS, SLSB and DLSB exercises. The muscle activities of BF, ST, VL and VM were monitored through surface electromyography (EMGs). To maintain

climbing they reach three times body mass and during squatting even seven times body mass ( Reilly and Martens, 1972 ). Moreover subjects with PFPS demonstrate significantly frequent pain when descending and climbing stairs (52.63%), and during squatting (68.42%) in comparison to the subjects who do not suffer from knee pain ( Liporaci et al., 2013 ). A study using surface electromyography (sEMG) revealed that during the squat, the primary muscles acting about the knee carrying out concentric knee extension and eccentric knee flexion are quadriceps muscles ( Schoenfeld


The objective of the study was to determine the order of muscle recruitment during the active hip joint extension in particular positions in young visually impaired athletes. The average recruitment time (ART) of the gluteus maximus (GM) and the hamstring muscle group (HMG) was assessed by the means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The sequence of muscle recruitment in the female and male group was also taken into consideration. This study followed a prospective, cross – sectional, randomised design, where 76 visually impaired athletes between the age of 18–25 years were enrolled into the research and selected on chosen inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 64 young subjects (32 men and 32 women) were included in the study (age: 21.1 ± 1.05 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 12.4 kg; body height: 1.74 ± 0.09 m; BMI: 22.20 ± 2.25 kg/m2). All subjects were analysed for the ART of the GM and HMG during the active hip extension performed in two different positions, as well as resting and functional sEMG activity of each muscle. Between gender differences were comprised and the correlations between the ART of the GM and HMG with their functional sEMG activity during hip extension in both positions were shown. No significant differences between the ART of the GM and HMG were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of ART among both tested positions, as well in male as female subjects (p>0.05).

. Biomed. Eng. , 43, 552-558. Pavlovic, V. I., Sharma, R., Huang, T. S. (1997). Visual interpretation of hand gestures for human computer interaction. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. , 19, 677-695. Wheeler, K. R., Jorgensen, C. C. (2003). Gestures as input: neuroelectric joysticks and keyboards. IEEE Pervasive Comput. , 2 (2), 56-61. Koike, Y., Kawato, M. (1996). Human interface using surface electromyography signals. Electron. Comm. Jpn. , 79 (9), 15-22. Doerschuk, P. C., Gustafson, D. E., Willsky, A. S. (1983). Upper extremity limb function discrimination


The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of static stretching, with vibration given directly over Achilles tendon, on electro-myographic (EMG) responses and vertical jump (VJ) performances. Fifteen male, college athletes voluntarily participated in this study (n=15; age: 22±4 years old; body height: 181±10 cm; body mass: 74±11 kg). All stages were completed within 90 minutes for each participant. Tendon vibration bouts lasted 30 seconds at 50 Hz for each volunteer. EMG analysis for peripheral silent period, H-reflex, H-reflex threshold, T-reflex and H/M ratio were completed for each experimental phases. EMG data were obtained from the soleus muscle in response to electro stimulation on the popliteal post tibial nerve. As expected, the dynamic warm-up (DW) increased VJ performances (p=0.004). Increased VJ performances after the DW were not statistically substantiated by the EMG findings. In addition, EMG results did not indicate that either static stretching (SS) or tendon vibration combined with static stretching (TVSS) had any detrimental or facilitation effect on vertical jump performances. In conclusion, using TVSS does not seem to facilitate warm-up effects before explosive performance.


Study aim: To determine whether a physiotherapy protocol improves the electromyographic activation (EA) during the hemiparetic gait in patients with delayed access to rehabilitation.

Material and methods: 40 post-stroke patients underwent clinical evaluation and gait assessment at the time of admission and at the end of treatment.

Results: The anterior leg muscles tibialis anterior and rectus femoris had earlier onset (p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Electromyographic findings showed altered patterns during the hemiparetic gait cycle, even in patients with delayed access to treatment.


Introduction. Productive sporting performance in various sports disciplines often heavily depends on jumping abilities as well as on lower limb muscles power and endurance of the athletes involved. Both CrossFit, a popular high-intensity training program and sport climbing require lower extremity muscular power and endurance.

Aim. The aim of this study was to compare vertical jumping abilities, endurance and quickness of the regeneration in gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), vastus medialis (VMO) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles in CrossFit athletes and sport climbers.

Material and methods. The study comprised 20 male athletes aged 24.3±4.7, divided into two equal groups: training CrossFit (CF) and sport climbers (SC). Vertical jump test was recorded by Vicon® motion capture system and AMTI® biomechanics force platforms. The myoelectric activity of the GL, VMO and GM muscles was recorded by myon®.

Results. Significant difference in height of vertical jump in CrossFit athletes and sport climbers was observed (SC: 125.43 cm, 120.92 cm; CF: 110.42 cm, 110.86 cm; p<0.05). The endurance of the GL muscles in athletes using CrossFit training is significantly higher in comparison to sport climbers. Athletes training CrossFit have a better ability to recover GL, GM and VMO muscles than sport climbers.

Conclusions. Sport climbers have better results in vertical jump tests than the athletes doing CrossFit. The endurance of the GL muscles in athletes doing CrossFit is higher in comparison to sport climbers. Athletes doing CrossFit have also better ability to muscles recover than sport climbers.