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Assessing the suitability of extreme learning machines (ELM) for groundwater level prediction

.J. 2010. Support vector machine based data processing algorithm for wear degree classification of slurry pump systems. Measurement. Vol. 43. Iss. 6 p. 781-791. RABUNAL J.R., PUERTAS J., SUAREZ J., RIVERO D. 2007. Determination of the unit hydrograph of a typical urban basin genetic programming and artificial neural networks. Hydrological Processes. Vol. 21. Iss. 4 p. 476-485. SAFAVI H.R., ESMIKHANI M. 2013. Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater: Application of support vector machines (SVMs) and genetic algorithms. Water

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Learned Features are Better for Ethnicity Classification

Abstract

Ethnicity is a key demographic attribute of human beings and it plays a vital role in automatic facial recognition and have extensive real world applications such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI); demographic based classification; biometric based recognition; security and defense to name a few. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting ethnicity from the facial images. The proposed method makes use of a pre trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract the features, then Support Vector Machine (SVM) with linear kernel is used as a classifier. This technique uses translational invariant hierarchical features learned by the network, in contrast to previous works, which use hand crafted features such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP); Gabor, etc. Thorough experiments are presented on ten different facial databases, which strongly suggest that our approach is robust to different expressions and illuminations conditions. Here we consider ethnicity classification as a three class problem including Asian, African-American and Caucasian. Average classification accuracy over all databases is 98.28%, 99.66% and 99.05% for Asian, African-American and Caucasian respectively. All the codes are available for reproducing the results on request.

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Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue.

Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

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Comparison Between Active Learning Method and Support Vector Machine for Runoff Modeling

Comparison Between Active Learning Method and Support Vector Machine for Runoff Modeling

In this study Active Learning Method (ALM) as a novel fuzzy modeling approach is compared with optimized Support Vector Machine (SVM) using simple Genetic Algorithm (GA), as a well known datadriven model for long term simulation of daily streamflow in Karoon River. The daily discharge data from 1991 to 1996 and from 1996 to 1999 were utilized for training and testing of the models, respectively. Values of the Nash-Sutcliffe, Bias, R2, MPAE and PTVE of ALM model with 16 fuzzy rules were 0.81, 5.5 m3 s-1, 0.81, 12.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. Following the same order of parameters, these criteria for optimized SVM model were 0.8, -10.7 m3 s-1, 0.81, 7.3%, and -3.6%, respectively. The results show appropriate and acceptable simulation by ALM and optimized SVM. Optimized SVM is a well-known method for runoff simulation and its capabilities have been demonstrated. Therefore, the similarity between ALM and optimized SVM results imply the ability of ALM for runoff modeling. In addition, ALM training is easier and more straightforward than the training of many other data driven models such as optimized SVM and it is able to identify and rank the effective input variables for the runoff modeling. According to the results of ALM simulation and its abilities and properties, it has merit to be introduced as a new modeling method for the runoff modeling.

Open access
Multi-objective optimization of in-situ bioremediation of groundwater using a hybrid metaheuristic technique based on differential evolution, genetic algorithms and simulated annealing

Abstract

Groundwater contamination due to leakage of gasoline is one of the several causes which affect the groundwater environment by polluting it. In the past few years, In-situ bioremediation has attracted researchers because of its ability to remediate the contaminant at its site with low cost of remediation. This paper proposed the use of a new hybrid algorithm to optimize a multi-objective function which includes the cost of remediation as the first objective and residual contaminant at the end of the remediation period as the second objective. The hybrid algorithm was formed by combining the methods of Differential Evolution, Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. Support Vector Machines (SVM) was used as a virtual simulator for biodegradation of contaminants in the groundwater flow. The results obtained from the hybrid algorithm were compared with Differential Evolution (DE), Non Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II) and Simulated Annealing (SA). It was found that the proposed hybrid algorithm was capable of providing the best solution. Fuzzy logic was used to find the best compromising solution and finally a pumping rate strategy for groundwater remediation was presented for the best compromising solution. The results show that the cost incurred for the best compromising solution is intermediate between the highest and lowest cost incurred for other non-dominated solutions.

Open access
Epilepsy Detection Using DWT Based Hurst Exponent and SVM, K-NN Classifiers

Abstract

Epilepsy is a typical neurological issue which influence the focal sensory system and can make individuals have seizure. It can be surveyed by electroencephalogram (EEG). A wavelet based HURST EXPONENT strategy is displayed for the analysis of epilepsy. This strategy deals with the nonlinear analysis of EEG signals. Discrete wavelet transform is used to disintegrate the original EEG signal into specific subbands. The hurst exponent of different sub-bands is employed and then fed into two classifiers, namely SVM and KNN. The highest classification accuracy obtained in the presented work is 99% for healthy subject data versus epileptic data is obtained by SVM. However, the corresponding accuracy between normal subject data and epileptic data using SVM is obtained as 99% and 93% for the eyes open and eyes shut conditions, respectively. The detailed analysis of the methodology and results has been discussed in the paper.

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Classification of Mental Tasks from EEG Signals Using Spectral Analysis, PCA and SVM

Abstract

Signals provided by the ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) are widely used in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) applications. They can be further analyzed and used for thinking activity recognition. In this paper we proposed an algorithm that is able to recognize five mental tasks using 6 channel EEG data. The main idea is to separate the raw EEG signals into several frames and compute their spectrums. Next, a second-order derivative of Gaussian is applied to extract features and an optimum Gaussian kernel parameters grid search is performed with the help of cross-validation. The extracted features are further reduced by Principal Component Analysis. The processed data is utilized to train SVM classifier which is used for mental tasks recognition afterwards. The performance of the algorithm is estimated on publically available dataset. In terms of 5 folds cross-validation we obtained an average of 82.7% recognition rate (accuracy). Additional experiments were conducted using leave-one-out cross-validation where 67.2% correct classification was reported. Comparison to several state-of-the art methods reveals the advantages of the proposed algorithm.

Open access
Graph-Based Complex Representation in Inter-Sentence Relation Recognition in Polish Texts

Abstract

This paper presents a supervised approach to the recognition of Cross-document Structure Theory (CST) relations in Polish texts. Its core is a graph-based representation constructed for sentences. Graphs are built on the basis of lexicalised syntactic-semantic relations extracted from text. Similarity between sentences is calculated as similarity between their graphs, and the values are used as features to train the classifiers. Several different configurations of graphs, as well as graph similarity methods were analysed for this task. The approach was evaluated on a large open corpus annotated manually with 17 types of selected CST relations. The configuration of experiments was similar to those known from SEMEVAL and we obtained very promising results.

Open access
Predicting the Default Risk of Companies. Comparison of Credit Scoring Models: Logit Vs Support Vector Machines

Terminowy, no. 1, pp. 120-128. Auria L., Moro R., 2008, Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a Technique for Solvency Analysis , Discussion Papers, DIW Berlin. Bellotti T., Crook J., 2009, Support vector machines for credit scoring and discovery of significant features, Expert Systems with Applications vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 3302-3308. Crone S., Finlay S., 2012, Instance sampling in credit scoring: An empirical study of sample size and balancing , International Journal of Forecasting, vol. 28. Gajdka J., Stos D., 1996, Wykorzystanie analizy

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A Comparative Analysis of Artificial Intelligence-Based Methods for Fault Diagnosis of Mechanical Systems

the most effective extracted features from the data. Afterwards, the faults of composite plates were classified using XCS, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), MLP, radial basis function (RBF), support vector machine (SVM), and KNN, and the proposed method and the results of these different classifier methods were compared at the end. 4.1 Preprocessing vibration signals A sample of vibration signals obtained from testing the composite panels for 8 s at a sampling frequency of 800 Hz is shown in Figure 5 . Figure 5 A sample of vibration

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