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Abstract

The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO4 2− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year); the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year). The average SO4 2− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4 −2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year), in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year); below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year) – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year), below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year). This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO4 2−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The inter-annual differences were insignificant.

Abstract

Efficient increase in the content of available forms of elements in soil depends not only on their total content introduced to soil material, but also on the technology of its application. Technology consists of techniques and date of application as well as agronomic practices aimed at maintaining proper conditions for element transformations. The method of application of waste elemental sulfur and ground phosphate rock was assessed. Doses of 20 and 40 mg S as well as 40 and 80 mg P·kg−1d.m. were added to medium soil; 30 and 60 mg S as well as 60 and 120 mg P·kg−1d.m. were added to heavy soil. The soil samples were collected on the day of application of materials and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The soil pH value decreased during the incubation. An increase in available sulfur content was observed in both soils after elemental sulfur application; the sulfur content in the medium soil depended on the dose of waste. The soils with the addition of a double dose of ground phosphate rock had the highest content of available phosphorus.

Abstract

This paper examines results of the sulphate sulphur content and its concentration in soil water from the beech forests situated in the Štiavnicke vrchy Mts in Slovakia. The S-SO4 2- content in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil water for 1989-2007 was studied in these beech stands and open plots. The highest SO4 2- values were found in the forest stand plot at 0.25 m depth (42.03 mg.l-1 in 1988), and the average sulphate sulphur content in soil water increased with soil depth; from 20.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 at the surface to 28.5 kg.ha-1.yr-1 at 0.25m depth. The mean S-SO42- concentration was 20.7 mg.l-1 in the surface humus and 30.84 mg.l-1 at 0.25m. There was an imput of 538.5 kg S-SO4 2-.ha-1 to the soil during the study period. Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant influence of sulphur content in the atmospheric deposition on the sulphur content in the soil water. A significant correlation between the precipitation amount and the content of sulphur in precipitation and in soil water was observed. The Student‘s t-test for dependent variables confirmed statistically significant differences between the sulphur content in soil water at 0.10 m and 0.25 m depths in these study areas. Finally, no significant differences were detected at the same plot in different study years