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1 Introduction While current discourses in urban research and practice tend to focus on processes of reurbanisation and the gentrification of inner-city areas, suburban areas are still a vital part of many city regions, at least in a majority of the developed countries. “The world is increasingly urban, and the urban world is increasingly suburban” ( Klausen/Røe 2012 : 1). As studies on suburbia and suburbanisation often emphasise North American or Anglo-Saxon debates and developments, we prefer to take a distinct continental European perspective on this topic

) show that growth is restricted to the older, inner suburbs. In the UK context, N. Bailey and J. Minton (2018) show that low income groups may be moving to locations further from the centre of the city, but they tend to go to the denser (cheaper) suburban locations in particular. For low income households, suburbanisation processes are generally viewed in negative terms because they are seen as arising not from positive choices but from direct or indirect displacement from central locations as a result of gentrification processes. This displacement is seen as

References Anas, A., Arnott, R. and Small, K. 1997: Urban Spatial Structure, University of California Transportation Center Working Paper, No. 357, Berkeley-Boston: SUNY Buffalo, Boston College, UC Irvine. Bagiński, E. 2000: Wrocław i strefa przymiejska jako układ osadniczy (Wrocław and its suburban zone as a settlement system - in Polish), Wrocław: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej. Berentsen, W., Roosaare, J. and Samara, P. 2000: Suburbanization and landscape change in Connecticut: Repetition of the patterns in Estonia and elsewhere in Central

occurring in a given suburban area. The analyses undertaken by the authors may apply in both cases. Features and properties of suburbanisation Urbanisation and suburbanisation have still been the ongoing processes shaping the contemporary look of the world. Due to the diverse nature of these phenomena, as well as the variability in time and space, we encounter many problems in the research and regular assessment of their intensity, choice of measures or administrative and investment decisions ( Śleszyński 2009 ; Czarnecki 2010 ). In the relevant subject literature, the

References Basten L. 2017. “In-betweens” in Time and Space: The Governance of Suburbanisms in the Ruhr. [in:] N.A. Phelps (ed.) Old Europe, New Suburbanization Governance, Land, and Infrastructure in European Suburbanization . University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Buffalo, London: 158–182. Brake K., Dangschat J., Herfert G. (eds). 2001. Suburbanisierung in Deutschland. Aktuelle Tendenzen . Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Cheshire P. 1995. A New Phase of Urban Development in Western Europe? The Evidence for the 1980s. Urban Studies , 32(7): 1045–1063. Dyszy M

the Warsaw conurbation by P. Werner (2005) , while M. Beim (2009) has proposed a hybrid model combining cellular automata with artificial neural networks to forecast the suburbanisation process in the Poznań conurbation. It is worth mentioning that as a result of long-term research work, the causes of another process called urban sprawl were also defined. This phenomenon related to a suburbanisation process that was described as ‘a new pattern of suburban spatial model that is deliberately ignoring historical urban conditions and human experience in this regard

. Berkeley: The Glendessary Press. [13] Lauko, V. (2001). Mestské sídla Slovenska a ich trvaloudržateľný rozvoj (pp. 59-79). In: Geografické štúdie No. 8. Banská Bystrica: Matej Bel University. [14] Leetmaa, K., Brade, I. Anniste, K. & Nuga, M. (2012). Socialist Summer-home Settlements in Post-socialist Suburbanisation. Urban Studies 49(1), 3-21. DOI: 10.1177/0042098010397399. [15] Lupi, T. & Musterd, S. (2006). The Suburban Community Question. Urban Studies 43(4), 801-817. DOI: 10.1080/00420980600597723. [16] Matlovič, R. & Sedláková, A. (2007). The Impact of

Tammaru, T. , 2012: Residential decision-making and satisfaction among new suburbanites in the Tallinn urban region, Estonia. In: Cities , Volume 29, Issue 1, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 49-58. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. cities.2011.07.005 Kährik, A. and Tammaru, T. , 2008: Population composition in new suburban settlements of the Tallinn metropolitan area. In: Urban Studies , Volume 45, Issue 5-6, New York: SAGE, pp. 1055-1078. DOI: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098008089853 Kok, H. and Kovács, Z. , 1999: The process of suburban-isation in the agglomeration of

Prologue – the role of closed/open borders in transnational suburbanisation When we talk nowadays about borders, the terms ‘hard’ or ‘soft’ are often used in the media not to describe the physical form of the divides, but the ability to cross them. This is mainly the case when the debate tackles migration or the state of the Irish Border after Brexit. However, scholars like P. Khanna recognise a striving towards a global renaissance based on connections, creating a ‘Connectography’ ( Khanna 2016 : xvi). For this author connectivity has replaced spatial division

Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. 1st Edition. London, New York: Routledge. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology , 78 (6), 1360–1380. Gutry-Korycka, M. (Ed.). 2005. Urban Sprawl: Warsaw Agglomeration Case Study. Warsaw: Warsaw University Press. Hirt, S. (2007). Suburbanizing Sofia: Characteristics of Post-Socialist Peri-Urban Change. Urban Geography, 26 (8), 755–780. Champion, T., Fielding, T. (1992). Editorial Introduction. In: T. Champion., T. Fielding (Eds.), Migration Processes and Patterns: Research Progress and