References 1. Newbury-Birch D, Lowry R, Kamali F. The chan ging patterns of drinking, illicit drug use, stress, an xiety and depression in dental students in a UK den tal school: a longitudinal study. Brit Dent J. 2002; 192: 646–649. 2. Akvardar Y, Demiral Y, Ergor G, Ergor A, Bilici M, Ozer A. Substanceuse in a sample of Turkish medical students. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 72: 117–121. 3. Akvardar Y, Demiral Y, Ergor G, Ergor A. Substan ce use among medical students and physicians in a medical school in Turkey. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004; 39: 502–506. 4
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, Michaud F-A, Narring F, Resnick MD. Protective correlates of stages in adolescent substanceuse: a Swiss national study. J Adolesc Health 2000; 26: 420-7. 11. Garry JP, Morrissey SL. Team sports participation and risk-taking behaviors among biracial middle school population. Clin J Sports Med 2000; 10: 185-90. 12. Eccles JS, Barber BL. Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: what kind of extracorricular involvement matters? J Adolesc Res 1999; 14: 10-43. 13. Rainey CJ, McKeown RE, Sargent RC, Valois RF. Patterns of tobacco and alcohol use among
Biodegradation of selected substances used in liquid fertilizers as an element of Life Cycle Assessment
The results of laboratory investigations into the aerobic biodegradation of chelating compounds in water medium under static test conditions are presented. It was found that nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) are more readily biodegradable than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) commonly used in the production of liquid fertilizers. Biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of compound decay and changes in COD.
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is currently one of the most important and serious diseases of pigs, mainly due to the enormous sanitary and socio-economic consequences. It leads to serious economic losses, not only because of the near 100% mortality rate, but also through the prohibitions of pork exports it triggers. Currently neither vaccines nor safe and effective chemotherapeutic agents are available against ASFV. The disease is controlled by culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards, which principally relies on disinfection. Some countries have approved and/or authorised a list of biocides effective against this virus. This article is focused on the characteristics of chemical substances present in the most popular disinfectants of potential use against ASFV. Despite some of them being approved and tested, it seems necessary to perform tests directly on ASFV to ensure maximum effectiveness of the disinfectants in preventing the spread of ASF in the future.
To evaluate the influence of different variables on tablet formulations containing enalapril maleate and indapamide as active substances, two separate experimental designs were employed: one for evaluating powder properties and the other for tablet characteristics. Because of the low active pharmaceutical ingredient content, it was hypothesized that both powder and tablet properties could be determined only by the characteristics of excipients. In order to test this assumption, both experimental designs were done with placebo mixtures. The optimized formulation was then evaluated both with and without APIs. Results indicated that filler and lubricant percentage, along with compression force, were the most important variables during the formulation study. The optimized formulation showed similar characteristics in both cases for all responses, except for angle of repose and friability where only minor differences were observed. The combination of the applied approaches (using placebo composition and fractional experimental design) proved to be efficient, cost effective and time saving.
26.7±6.9 32.4±7.2 Genotype Wild-type 14 20 Heterozygotes 25 22 Homozygotes 10 8 Heterozygotes: p.Val158Med exchange; Homozygotes: p.Val158Met exchange. Of the patients included in the study, history of chronic illness, family history, substanceuse, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and history of admission to the Bursa Treatment and Research Center for Alcohol and Drug Addiction (BTR-CADA), Bursa, Turkey, were investigated. Forty-two patients (86.8%) had no history of chronic disease; one patient (2.04%) had anxiety disorder, one patient (2.04%) had bipolar disorder, one
;58:121-123. 4. Romanian Ministry of Health - Press Service. Ministerul Sănătăţii a stabilit lista cu plante și substanţe cu proprietăţi psihoactive care vor fi interzise, după ce s-au dovedit a fi periculose pentru sănătate [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10]. Available from: http://www.ms.ro/index.php?pag=62&id=8095&pg=1 5. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlström S, Balakireva O, Bjarnason T, Kokkevi A, Kraus L. SubstanceUse Among Students in 35 European Countries. ESPAD Report. 2007:12 6. European monitoring Centre for Drug and Addiction. National Report - Romania. 2011:26 7
comprehensive expert-rated interview. A self-rated version (ETI-SR) was later developed and briefer self-rated short form (ETISR-SF) was made after a psychometric analysis identified redundant items ( 15 ). The ETISR-SF has been proven to be a valid instrument for retrospective self-assessment of childhood trauma in diverse populations (subjects with substanceuse disorders, war veterans, depressive patients and puerperae) ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ), and has good test-retest reliability ( 17 , 18 , 19 ). It consists of 27 items in the four domains of physical, emotional
. Opinion articles were also included if they otherwise met the inclusion criteria. These included perspectives, letters to the editor or their replies, essays, and viewpoints with a focus specifically on physician suicide. Exclusion criteria were non-English publications and those only pertaining to physician burnout, mental health, substanceuse disorders, or other media, such as newspaper, magazine, or other journalistic articles. Query results totaled 1,596 articles after deduplication. Two authors reviewed abstracts and titles for inclusion in the full-text review