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, Abbondanzo S, Barekman C, et al. Histiocytic sarcoma: a study of five cases including the histiocyte marker CD163. Mod Pathol 2005;18:693-704. 5. Sundersingh S, Majhi U, Seshadhri R, et al. Multifocal histiocytic sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012;55(2):233-5. 6. Yang Y, Jin L, Zhang J, et al. Primary huge histiocytic sarcoma of the stomach: a case report and systematic review. Int J Clin Exp Med 2016;9(10):19785-90. 7. Congyang L, Xinggui W, Hao L, et al. Synchronous histiocytic sarcoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving the

-108. Arellano J.M., Storch V., Sarasquete C. 2001 - Histological and histochemical observations in the stomach of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis - Histol. Histopathol. 16: 511-521. Ba-Omar T.A., Victor R., Tobias D.B. 1998 - Histology of the stomach of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1828), a cyprinodont fish, with emphasis on changes caused by stress from starvation - Trop. Zool. 11: 11-17. Best F. 1906 - Uber carmine far bug des glycogens and derkerne - Z. Wiss. Mikr. 3: 319-322. Cao J.X., Wang W.M. 2009 - Histology and mucin histochemistry of the digestive tract of yellow

Abstract

Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

Pathol 2007, 15: 397-400 16. Bircan S, Candır O, Aydın Ş, Başpınar Ş, Bulbul M, Kapucuoğlu N, Karahan N, Ciriş M: Synchronous primary adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach: A report of two cases. Turk J Gastroenterol 2004, 15: 187-191 17. Soyuer I, Taşdemir A, Ozturk F, Gursoy Ş, Artış T, Dikilitaş M, Gokoz Doğu G, Soyuer S, Karahan Oİ, Bayram F: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and their association with other rare tumors: Case report. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci 2010, 30: 361-367 18. Sugimura T, Fujimura S, Baba T: Tumor

Abstract

Introduction: Melanoma is the primary tumor of melanocytes with gastrointestinal metastases which ocurs in about 2% of the patients.

Aim: The aim of this paper is to present a patient with multiple simultaneos metastases of melanoma in the gastrointestinal tract and draw attention to the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with melanoma. Patients and Methods. We report a case of 74 years-old male with previously removed skin melanoma three years ago, and with symptoms such as anemia, weight loss and abdominal pain.

Results: On gastroscopy two tumours sized 3 cm and 3,5 cm, on the front and rear stomach wall was detected. On colonoscopy, tumor size 3 cm was detected in sigmoid colon. During surgical operation in addition to these were found three more tumors on small intestine sized from 3 cm to 6 cm. Microscopicaly the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was made.

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal metastases of malignant melanoma are rare but it should be considered in any patient with a history of melanoma who develops gastrointestinal symptoms.

Assessment of differential expression of oncogenes in adenocarcinoma of stomach with fluorescent labeling and simultaneous amplification of gene transcripts

Background. Gastric cancer is one of the leading malignancies with a poor prognosis and low survival rates. Although the mechanisms underlying its development are still unknown, there is a consensus that genetic instability, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and over-expression of oncogenes are involved in the early and late stages of gastric carcinogenesis. In the present study we wanted to display differential expression of seven oncogenes, namely CCNE1, EGF, ERBB3, FGF4, HRG1, HGFR and TDGF1.

Patients and methods. We employed a method based on the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain (RT-PCR) method with a fluorescence detection.

Results. More than half of patients (74.3%) out of total 74 with gastric adenocarcinoma had over-expressed at least one oncogene, with the exception of FGF4, which was expressed in tumor tissue of less than one third of patients. 56.8% of the patients patients showed over-expression of two or more oncogenes.

Conclusions. Patients with precancerous lesions had elevated levels of TDGF1 or cripto-1 (64.9%) and CCNE1 (57.1%), suggesting that they could be used as markers for an early detection of malignant changes in stomach. Finally, the fluorescent multiplex RT-PCR method could be of value for rapid assessment of oncogene mRNA levels in small samples of tumor or precancerous biopsies.

surfaces [ 15 ] and of sensitivity equations involving current density vectors due to two separate pairs of electrodes in TPIM [ 16 ]. Finite element simulation and phantom measurements using one of these suggested methods targeting the lungs produced promising results [ 17 ]. The present work was taken up using another of the novel ideas on electrode placement suggested in the above work [ 14 ] that has the possibility of targeting the stomach. This idea was originally suggested for an asymmetrically placed deep object as shown in a cross sectional diagram in Figure 1

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) are infectious bacteria that colonize the stomach and duodenum. This species presents a high rate of infection [ 1 ] and can cause chronic inflammation of the stomach and duodenum. Hp infection can cause gastric mucosal damage, leading to chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer. More serious cases can lead to gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and other diseases. Hp gastritis is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer and peptic ulcer and its complications. The fourth Kyoto

References 1. Rider, JA; Klotz, AP; Kirsner, JB (1953). “Gastritis with veno-capillary ectasia as a source of massive gastric hemorrhage”. Gastroenterology. 24 (1): 118-23. 2. Rider, JA; Klotz, AP; Kirsner, JB (1953). “Gastritis with veno-capillary ectasia as a source of massive gastric hemorrhage”. Gastroenterology. 24 (1): 118-23. 3. Jabbari M, Cherry R, Lough JO, Daly DS, Kinnear DG, Goresky CA. Gastric antrovascular ectasia: the watermelon stomach. Gastroenterology 1984;87:1165. 4. Ward EM, Raimondo M, Rosser BG, et al. Prevalence and natural history of

References 1. Bozbora A: Morbid Obezite ve Guncel Cerrahi Tedavi. Erguney S, Cicek Y. (ed., cev.), 6. Baskı İstanbul, Avrupa Tıp Kitapcılık, 2001, 105-109 2. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K: Ghrelin is growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 1999, 402:656-660 3. Aydin S, Ozkan Y, Caylak E: Grelin and its biochemical functions. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci 2006, 26:272-283 4. Brolin RE: Bariatric surgery and long-term control of morbid obesity. JAMA 2002, 288:2793-2796 5. Tanaka-Shintani M, Watanabe M