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A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1


Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

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Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. – health-promoting properties. A review


This paper presents the characteristics of the species Ganoderma lucidum in terms of health-promoting properties. This species is rare in Poland, and is subject to strict protection. Reishi is classified as a medicinal mushroom which fruiting bodies are characterized by a content of active substances with diverse positive effects on human health. G. lucidum is particularly rich source of bioactive compounds, which are obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and spores of this species. The therapeutic effect of G. lucidum extracts has been demonstrated in many scientific studies. The most important pharmacological and physiological effects include: immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-atherosclerosis, antidiabetic and anti-aging. Reishi has also a beneficial effect on liver cells and the cardiovascular system and protects in case of stomach ulcers. Due to its properties G. lucidum can be used in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer, stroke and heart diseases.

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Honey between traditional uses and recent medicine

Respiratory Infections in Children. Lung. 2011 [Epub ahead of print] 55. AL-Bukhaari M. Holy Hadith (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Arabic). Kazi Publications, 1994. 56. Celsus C. De medicina. Heinemann London, UK, 1935. 57. Khotkina ML. Honey as part of therapy for patients with stomach ulcers. Collection of papers from the Irkutsk State Medical Institute, 1955:252-262. 58. Sela MO, Shapira L, Grizim I, Lewinstein I, Steinberg D, Gedalia I, Grobler SR. Effects of honey consumption on enamel micro hardness in normal versus

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Lying and the First Amendment

); Michael J. Sandel, Moral Argument and Liberal Toleration: Abortion and Homosexuality , 77 Cal. L. Rev. 539 (1989). A consensus, moreover may change as new facts become known – it was long falsely believed that stomach ulcers were caused by stress – and a past consensus – like the white population’s belief in the inferiority of non-whites – may crumble as social values evolve. Truth and morality cannot finally be determined by majority rule. Requiring a statement on licensing, however, appears easy to justify. If the act required an unlicensed person performing

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