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significant mechanical loads by storing and returning elastic energy and enabling explosive movements such as running and jumping ( Komi et al., 1992 ; Park et al., 2006 ). Previously, Foure et al. (2012) used ultrasonography combined with dynamometry and electromyography to assess muscle-tendon (gastrocnemii muscle and AT) complex passive stiffness. In another study authors measured the AT cross-sectional area by ultra-sonographic imaging scans (Foure et al., 2013) . Those methods were very precise, but could be used only in laboratory settings. That is why it seems to

, ICOMOS IWC-XVI International Symposium. Florence, Venice and Vicenza, Italy, 2007. [4] BRANCO, J. M.: Influence of the joints stiffness in the monotonic and cyclic behaviour of traditional timber trusses. Assessment of the efficacy of different strengthening techniques: Doctoral thesis. University of Minho and University of Trento. Portugal, Italy, 2008. [5] DESCAMPS, T. - LEMLYN, P.: Effects of the rotational, axial and transversal stiffness of the joints on the static response of old timber framings. In Proceedings of the International Conference on the Protection of

References 1. Norhammar A, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women. Diabetologia 56: 1-9, 2013. 2. Van Popele NM, Grobbee DE, Bots ML et al. Association between arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke 32: 454- 460, 2001. 3. Djaberi R, Beishuizen ED, Pereira AM. Noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 51: 1581-1593, 2008. 4. Urbina EM, Gao Z, Khouri PR, Martin LJ, Dolan LM. Insulin resistance and

References 1. Djaberi R, Beishuizen ED, Pereira AM. Noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 51: 1581-1593, 2008. 2. Lee HY, Oh BH. Aging and arterial stiffness. Circ J 74: 2257-2262, 2010. 3. Schram MT, Henry RMA, van Dijk RAJM et al. Increased central artery stiffness in impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes: The Hoorn study. Hypertension 43: 176-181, 2004. 4. Kim ES, Moon SD, Kim HS et al. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with increased

, No. 3, 27–40. [7] P ettersson L., Full Scale Tests and Structural Evaluation of Soil Steel Flexible Culverts with low High of Cover , Doctoral Thesis in Civil and Architectural Engineering Stockholm, 2007. [8] B ayoglu F laner E., S undquist H., Full-scale testing of two corrugated steel box culverts with different crown stiffness , Archives of Institute of Civil Engineering, 2007, No 1. [9] M anko Z., B ębęn D., Influence of road pavement on behaviour of soil-steel bridge structure , Der Stahlbau, 2007, 76, Heft 12, 905–915. [10] M achelski C

References 1. Barret KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Section VI: Cardiovascular Physiology. In: Ganong’s review of medical physiology, 23rd Edition. Ed. McGraw Hill, Singapore, pp 510-512, 2010. 2. O’Rourke MF, Staessen JA, Vlachopoulos C, Duprez D, Plante GE. Clinical applications of arterial stiffness; definitions and reference values. Am J Hypertens 15: 426-444, 2002. 3. Yki-Jarvinen H, Westerbacka J. Insulin resistance, arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Adv Cardiol 44: 252-260, 2007. 4. Zieman SJ, Melenovsky V, Kass DA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology

): 1367–1382. Chávez-Olivares, C., Reyes, F. and González-Galván, E. (2015). On stiffness regulators with dissipative injection for robot manipulators, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 12 (65): 1–15. Chávez-Olivares, C., Reyes, F., González-Galván, E., Mendoza, M. and Bonilla, I. (2012). Experimental evaluation of parameter identification schemes on an anthropomorphic direct drive robot, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 9 (203): 1–18. Dario, P., Guglielmelli, E. and Allotta, B. (1994). Robotics in medicine, IEEE/RSJ/GI International

stiffness Procedia Engineering 2015, 112, 34-39. [26] Wu C., Balance D., Static and free vibration analyses of a bike using finite element method. International Journal of Engineering Research & Science, 2015, 1(7), 60-86. [27] Lee C., Chung C., Sun J., Uniform Design and Explicit Dynamics Finite Element Analysis in Improving Permanent Deformation of an On-Road Bicycle Frame Undergoing the Drop-Frame Impact Test. International Conference of Electrical, Automation and Mechanical Engineering), 2015, 688-691. [28] Kingsley U., Ehi P., Adgidzi D., Finite Element Analysis of

. EASL-ALEH Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-invasive tests for evaluation of liver disease severity and prognosis . J Hepatol 2015; 63 :237-64. 9. CASTERA L., FORNS X., ALBERTI A. Non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis using transient elastography . J Hepatol 2008; 48 :835-47. 10. ROULOT D., CZERNICHOW S., LE CLESIAU H., COSTES J.L., VERGNAUD A.C., BEAUGRAND M. Liver stiffness values in apparently healthy subjects: influence of gender and metabolic syndrome . J Hepatol 2008; 48 :606-13. 11. KIM S.U., CHOI G.H., HAN W.K., KIM B.K., PARK J.Y., KIM DO Y., et al

and vestibular thresholds for the perception of sway during standing in humans. J Physiol, 1994; 478: 173-86 Fitzpatrick RC, Taylor JL, McCloskey DI. Ankle stiffness of standing humans in response to imperceptible perturbation: Reflex and task-dependent components. J Physiol, 1992; 454: 533-47 Ford GS, Mazzone MA, Taylor K. The effect of 4 different durations of static hamstring stretching on passive knee-extension range of motion. J Sport Rehab, 2005; 14: 95-107 Gajdosik R. Giuliani C. Bohannon R.: Passive compliance and length of the hamstring muscles of healthy