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Dammed lakes – Present state of knowledge and research requirements

Abstract

The paper presents the current state of knowledge on dammed lakes in Poland and identifies the crucial research necessities in this area. The analysis of documents concerning dammed lakes and information obtained from institutions responsible for water management in Poland were the basis for a preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of dammed lakes located in north-west Poland. This allowed the identification of the necessary directions to be taken in the study of dammed lakes. In many cases, the indicated directions are innovative and have high potential for application.

Open access
State of Knowledge on Reliability and Safety in the Light of the Scientific Conferences in 2017

Abstract

The presented analysis of state of knowledge on reliability and safety is based on publications of 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference ESREL 2017, which took place in Portoroz in Slovenia on 18-22 June 2017 and 52nd and 49rd Seminars of ESReDA European Safety, Reliability and Data Association which were held, respectively: at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas, Lithuania (29-31 May 2017) and at European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra, Italy (13-15 November 2017).

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The state of knowledge of Macromycetes in xerothermic grasslands in Poland

The state of knowledge of Macromycetes in xerothermic grasslands in Poland

The short history of research on and the current state of knowledge of macromycetes occurring in xerothermic swards of the class Festuco-Brometea in Poland over the last 50 years are presented. Mycological investigations in most communities, e.g. Sisymbrio-Stipetum capillatae and Thalictro-Salvietum pratensis have been carried out rather occasionally and the information concerning steppe fungi has been reported in few papers only. Regular mycological studies have been conducted in five plant associations only: Festucetum pallentis, Origano-Brachypodietum, Koelerio-Festucetum rupicolae, Potentillo-Stipetum capillatae and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati.

The list of species of fungi recorded in xerothermic swards in Poland is not long and comprises approximately 40 species. Some are very rare and put on the red-list as threatened macrofungi in Poland (36), e.g. Calvatia candida, Disciseda bovista, D. candida, Gastrosporium simplex, Geastrum minimum, G. schmidelli, Leucopaxillus lepistoides, Montagnea radiosa, Myriostoma coliforme, Polyporus rhizophilus and Tulostoma melanocyclum.

The mycological profile of xerothermic swards in Poland has been under-explored. Further investigations on macrofungi occurring in steppe swards, their distribution and ecology as well as threats resulting from the disappearance of this type of plant communities in Poland are necessary.

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Glycemic index and glycemic load in preventive cardiology – the state of knowledge, selected controversies

Abstract

The current epidemiological situation in Poland is characterized by prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as the main cause of mortality. In the paper the current state of knowledge on the importance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in CVD prevention is presented, taking into consideration the latest recommendations on CVD prevention. In a nutrition strategy based on consumption of low GI/GL foods, the target of the intervention is the profile of dietary carbohydrates which is treated as a modulator of glycemic response. In the light of the current state of research, there is no reason to treat GI/GL values as markers of pro-health qualities of the dietary plan recommended in CVD prevention to individuals with normal glucose homeostasis. However, the preventive potential of diets characterized by low GI/GL deserves a more extensive application in patients with glucose homeostasis disturbances, including those with prediabetes and insulin resistance syndrome. Taking into account the relations between abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and a risk of developing diabetes, followed by CVD, the benefits of low-glycemic diets in individuals with impaired glucose homeostasis can indirectly result in lowering the risk of CVD. It is reasonable to conduct further clinical studies on the relevance of low GI/GL diets in preventive cardiology.

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Knowledge of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO)

Abstract

The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.

The scope of problems undertaken was elaborated based on the survey conducted in a group of 500 adolescents from the Lublin Region completing secondary schools, including 250 adolescents attending General Secondary Schools and 250 adolescents attending Agricultural Secondary Technical Schools. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, using a questionnaire.

The study showed that the majority of adolescents completing secondary schools were not interested at all in the scope of problems concerning GMO. A large part of the respondents (more than 2/5) had a very low level of knowledge of this problem. The greatest differences in the level of knowledge about GMO were observed in subgroups divided according to the type of school attended by the adolescents (General or Agricultural Technical). Respondents who attended General Secondary Schools showed a better knowledge of theoretical problems, whereas those who attended Secondary Agricultural Technical Schools were better familiarised with practical issues.

Open access
Nesting habitat selection of Peregrine Falcons (Falco p. peregrinus) in Eastern Germany – the state of knowledge

Abstract

After the disappearance of the Peregrine Falcon during the DDT era, the re-colonization of Eastern Germany from 1981 was accompanied by colour-ringing of a high percentage of juveniles and systematic identification of these individuals on their later nest-sites. Before that period there were two geographically distinct subpopulations: tree-breeders in the north, and cliff-breeders in the south. We were able to restore the tree breeders’ tradition by imprinting nestlings at stick nests in forests. Today, besides cliff- and tree-breeders there are also nest-sites on buildings and lattice structures. The population is increasing including all nest-site types. Here, we analyse nesting habitat choice with respect to the natal habitat of birds. The exchange between the four nest-site types is limited. Habitat fidelity was high in birds fledged on cliffs (95%) and on buildings (81%). The sample size for lattice structures is still too low for deeper analyses. The fixation towards trees was stable only in 56% of birds, and higher for males than for females. The influx from other habitat types is very limited and hardly supports the tree breeders’ subpopulation. A growing number of tree-breeders go along with higher habitat fidelity which is stabilizing their sub-population.

Open access
Speciation in Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera): the current state of knowledge and its consequences

Abstract

Based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, Thrips tabaci has been divided into three lineages: a tobacco-associated (T) and two leek-associated types (L1, L2). It is believed that the arrhenotokous leek-associated type (L1) is the ancient form of T. tabaci and that the T type diverged from it and adapted to solanaceous host plants. The third lineage of T. tabaci, the so-called thelytokous leek-associated type (L2) and the L1 form share many host plants. According to a recent study, the L2 form of T. tabaci could outcompete the L1 type on cabbage plants; it might therefore be more accurate to identify it as the thelytokous cabbage-associated type.

Open access
Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: current state of knowledge

Abstract

A review of the occurrence of representatives of the families Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia is presented based on literary data and recently obtained records. Strongylophthalmyia pictipes Frey, 1935 (Strongylophthalmyiidae) is a new addition to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Its record from the Jizerské hory Mts is the second from Central Europe and represents a new southwestern most distribution limit of the species. Biology, distribution, faunistics in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and importance for nature conservation (with evaluation of degree of jeopardy) are discussed for all species, including also Strongylophthalmyia ustulata (Zetterstedt, 1847), Tanypeza longimana Fallén, 1820 (Tanypezidae) and Megamerina dolium (Fabricius, 1805 (Megamerinidae).

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Orchard aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidoidea) of Lithuania: a century of research

(Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) fauna of Lithuania: an effect of global warming? Ekologija (Vilnius) 2004 (1): 1–4. R akauskas R. 2006. Biodiversity: time for detailed local studies. Biologija (Vilnius) 2006 (1): 91–95. R akauskas R. 2011. Alien and invasive to Lithuania aphid species (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Aphids and other Hemipterous insects 17 : 23–29. R akauskas R. 2014. Aphid (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea) fauna of Lithuania: current state of knowledge. [in:] J.R. S tonis , S.R. H ill , A. D iškus , T. A

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Ceraphronidae and Megaspilidae (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) of Poland: current state of knowledge with corrections to the Polish checklist

Abstract

An updated checklist of 16 Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Parasitica) species from Poland is given together with information on deposition, sampling, and, if possible, host associations. We also present a complete reference list regarding work on Polish Ceraphronoidea.

Open access