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The bad economic situation for agro-forest farms in Poland during the interwar period was caused by war damage, a global economic crisis, crop failure, indebtedness prior to World War I, and by tribute payments towards rebuilding the country. Although the timber harvest was substantial, farm owners were forced to take loans. In 1938, the debt level of agro-forest farms accounted for 18 per cent of their total value. The average debt level for this period oscillated between 9.8 and 126.0 PLN/ha-1. The assistance programme implemented by the government provided for a reduction in the interest rate of loans, particularly for farms with an area up to 300 ha.


have been housed by the state, this paper is an important and novel evidence-based contribution to the, to date, limited discussion around the potential effects of such a reliance on those families. Even those families who do not need direct state assistance in being housed find it challenging to purchase a permanent dwelling of their own. The typical aftermath of an economic recession in housing terms is the slow return to the supply of housing, and what housing is supplied tends to be out of the financial reach of the majority of those households seeking to buy a

McCarthy (2007) shows how shaming thus plays a role in the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, a discourse of discipline administered through a broad repertoire of organized, and sometimes mediated, practices, mentalities, rationalities and techniques by which citizens are coerced to discipline themselves in the face of a shrinking public sector ( McCarthy 2007: 18 ). Laurie Ouellette (2004) argues that this type of show educates “TV viewers to function without state assistance or supervision as self-disciplining, self-sufficient, responsible, and risk

genocide and deportation, faced a new catastrophe—refugeehood. They were scattered throughout the world: some were settled in the Caucasus and Russia, while others moved, amongst other places, to the Near East, Egypt, Greece, France and the USA. Routinely Armenian refugees were confronted with famine and disease. When local populations provided assistance, it tended to be small scale and disorganized. There was no state assistance available to them since the Transcaucasia Armenian Republic (1918–20) had ceased to exist. 2 In Turkey itself, having been complicit in

assistance are often associated with stigma. This model of welfare state encourages market-based solutions to social problems—either passively by guaranteeing only a minimum or actively by directly subsidizing private welfare schemes. Conservative regimes (Germany, Italy, Finland, Japan, Switzerland, and France) are typically shaped by traditional family values and tend to encourage family-based assistance dynamics. Social insurance in this model typically excludes nonworking wives, and family benefits encourage motherhood. State assistance will typically only step in