Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades. The survey examined overweight and obesity in the population of boys and girls from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, aged seven through fourteen from 1991 to 2011.
Methods: An annually repeated cross-sectional study of data from the national SLOFIT monitoring system was used. The body mass index cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force were used to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for modelling the probability of overweight and obesity as a function of time (year of measurement), sex and age of subjects.
Results: In 1991-2011 period, the odds for overweight and obesity among primary school children (n = 376,719) increased every year by 1.7% (95% CI: 1.6-1.9) and 3.7% (3.4-4%) respectively. Boys have 1.17 (95% CI: 1.15-1.20) times higher odds of becoming overweight and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.35-1.44) times higher odds of becoming obese than girls. In comparison to the reference group (age of 14), the highest odds for overweight were found at the ages of nine and ten (1.39; 95% CI: 1.34-1.44), while for the obesity the highest odds were at the age of eight (2.01; 95% CI: 1.86-2.16).
Conclusion: From 1991 to 2011, overweight and obesity clearly became more prevalent in children from Ljubljana. This trend has been more obvious among boys than girls. In comparison to 14-year-old boys and girls, the highest odds for excessive weight were found below the age of 10.
Simptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern and the role of some demographic characteristic among slovenian youth: a cross sectional study
Background: There is some evidence that a more elevated level of anxiety and depression is associated with adolescent timing and that depression and anxiety have overlapping symptoms and are conceptually interrelated.
Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical importance and comorbidity rates of some psychological symptoms. The aim was to explore the presence and intensity of the symptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern in Slovenian adolescents. The second aim was to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the presence of these symptoms. Two hundred and three adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring specific symptoms.
Results and conclusions: The results of the current study indicate that depressive and anxiety symptoms were found not to differ by gender, age and socioeconomic status. Girls and boys showed similar profiles of correlations for depressive and anxiety symptoms. High level of depressive symptoms, such a feelings of sadness, unhappiness, and loneliness, were associated with increased symptoms of anxiety among boys and girls and both expressed more sexual concerns as well. Anger, angry thoughts, feelings and behaviour were strongly linked to preoccupation with sexual thoughts or feelings for both boys and girls. The findings extend the current knowledge in this area. Identifying and assessing depression and other symptoms are essential to ensuring access to appropriate treatment.
Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and it is essential for bone formation. Several factors can affect vitamin D levels in plasma. In present study we compare vitamin D levels of outpatients, who admit to Maltepe University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 and had vitamin D measurements regarding gender, age, and season.
Hospital records were evaluated to identify the outpatients with vitamin D levels and their gender, age, and vitamin D levels and the seasons of measurements were recorded.
Data of 4860 subjects (74% female) were analyzed and 69.2% were between 18–64 years old. Vitamin D levels were as follows: 43.1% ≤ 10 ng/mL, 31.9% between 10 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL, 16.1% between 20 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL, and only 8.9% ≥ 30 ng/mL. The number of females with vitamin D levels < 10 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of males, while the number of males with vitamin D levels between 10 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of females (P = 0.001) for each of the individuals, 6.2% and 11.1% had sufficient levels in winter and summer, respectively. Overall, it was observed that 6.6% of individuals between 18–44 years old, 8.2% of individuals between 45–64 years old and 10.3% of individuals over 65 years old had vitamin D levels > 30 ng/mL.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in outpatients of Maltepe University Hospital in Marmara region was 75% (< 20 ng/mL).
Background: Since genetic variations in X-ray cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4; OMIM: 194363) repair gene might be associated with a reduction in cellular DNA repair capacity, it is hypothesized that XRCC4 Ins/Del (I/D) polymorphism (in intron 3 of the gene; rs28360071) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Therefore, the present case-control study was carried out.
Methods: The present case-control study included 407 females with breast cancer and a total of 394 healthy females from the general population matched with patients according to age. Genotypic analysis for the XRCC4 I/D polymorphism was performed by PCR. In order to investigate the effect of XRCC4 I/D polymorphism on age at diagnosis of breast cancer, the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used.
Results: Based on the present case-control study, the ID (OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.69–1.31, P=0.781) and DD (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.84–1.83, P=0.274) genotypes were not associated with breast cancer risk compared with the II genotype. Based on the Cox regression model, there was significant association between genotypes of I/D polymorphism and age at diagnosis of breast cancer (ID+DD vs II; HR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.98, P=0.036).
Conclusion: Although there was no significant association between XRCC4 I/D polymorphism and risk of breast cancer, patients having the II genotype have lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients having ID+DD genotypes.
The article presents the cultural heritage of the mediaeval town of Lipnica Murowana, located in Lesser Poland in Bochnia County. This historic town can boast valuable architectonic and urban design buildings. These are the church of St. Leonard; the church of St. Andrew the Apostle; the church of St. Simon; the Starost’s House; the Ledóchowski Manor; the school building, relics of town housing and, primarily, the mediaeval urban layout with a market square. The article presents the history of the abovementioned historic buildings and spaces, and analyses their current protection and conservation guidelines.
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Lipid Profile of Healthy Women During Normal Pregnancy
The four basic lipid indexes (Chol, Trig, HDL-C and LDL-C) increase during pregnancy, following different rates of increase. Among the four analytes triglycerides show the largest increase and HDL-C the smallest. All analyte values are raised during the 40 weeks of pregnancy, except HDL-C which is stabilized during the second trimester. After delivery the values decrease, except LDL-C which remains steady (for some weeks) before starting to fall following the others. In this study the relations between the four lipid indexes and some predisposing factors (age, gestational age, nationality, body mass index, profession, smoking and diabetes during pregnancy) were investigated. The sample consisted of 413 pregnant women, mainly Greeks and Albanians. After regression analysis it was proved that the only common predisposing factor was the gestational age. Triglycerides and total cholesterol are also influenced by the women's age. The lipid indexes showed no important difference between the pregnant women in the first trimester and the non-pregnant women. On the contrary, there was a statistical difference between the pregnant women in the second and third trimester and between them and the women in the first trimester. The percentages of increase between first and second trimester were: Chol: 38%, Trig: 115%, HDL-C: 30%, LDL-C: 33%. The percentages of increase between first and third trimester were: Chol: 65%, Trig: 208%, HDL-C: 26%, LDLC: 64%.
Background. Smoking is initiated mostly by adolescents and young adults. In Slovenia, we have limited data about this. The purpose of this paper is to show data on age at smoking initiation and differences in age at smoking initiation by gender, age groups, education, social class and geographical region among inhabitants of Slovenia.
Methods. We used data from the cross-sectional survey ‘Health-related behaviour 2012’ in Slovenian population aged from 25 to 74 years.
Results. 4591 ever smokers, aged 25-74, that gave information about the age at smoking initiation were included in the analysis. At the age of 25 or less, smoking was initiated by 96.7% of Slovene ever smokers, at the age of 18 or less by 71.0%. The average age at smoking initiation was 17.7 years. Male ever smokers initiated smoking at an earlier age compared to female ones. Age at smoking initiation was decreasing in both male and female ever smokers, but was more pronounced in females. In male ever smokers, there were no differences in average smoking initiation age by education, self-reported social class and geographical regions, while in female ever smokers, there were significant differences in terms of education and geographical regions.
Conclusion. The initiation of smoking predominantly occurs in adolescents and young adults. Age at smoking initiation has decreased in recent decades. Our study confirms the importance of early and sustained smoking prevention programmes in youth and the importance of national comprehensive tobacco control programme with effective tobacco control measures to ban tobacco products marketing.
References BECK, U. Risikogesellschaft. Auf demWeg ins andere Moderne: Edition Suhrkamp. 2001. CIJAN, V., and CIJAN, R. Zdravstveni, socialni in pravni vidiki starostnikov. Maribor: Visoka zdravstvena šola, 2003. HOJNIK ZUPANC, I. Priprava na upokojitev in starost. HOJNIK ZUPANC, I. (ed.) Dodajmo življenje letom: nekaj spoznanj in nasvetov, kako se smiselno in zdravo pripravljati na starost in jo tako tudi živeti. Ljubljana: Gerontološko društvo Slovenije, 1997. HOJNIK ZUPANC, I. Samostojnost starega človeka v družbeno-prostorskem kontekstu. Ljubljana: Fakulteta
Objective: Today, a majority of the world population is dealing with physical inactivity and related health problems.Moreover, while various interventions are being adopted to increase children’s physical activity, these are mostly lessoreven un-successful. One of the possible reasons for this could be the wrong timing for their instalment. Therefore,the purpose of our study is to analyse between-day and within-day physical activity in 5- to 8-year old children.
Methods: Using accelerometers we monitored 97 Slovenian children (49 males) for five consecutive days.
Results: We found that 5- to 8- year old Slovenian children are physically active on average between 689 and795 counts per minute, with age and gender significant factors, however both with low effect size. The averagedata was in line with the trends of the world’s population. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity wasnever measured in 5- to 8- year old children and we found it to be significantly longer than in slightly older children.Furthermore, we have defined the time periods with the lowest physical activity, which is in the morning, after thebreakfast. Additionally, there are some age differences, with 5-year olds being most active before lunch but lessphysically active in the early afternoon.
Conclusions: In conclusion we have to emphasize and implicate to next generation studies to indicate time periodswith the lowest physical activity and to promote physical activity interventions in those periods to achieve the greatestimpact.