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Methods for Asssessing Energy Efficiency of Grain Dryers

Abstract

The article presents an algorithm for calculating selected energy assessment indexes for grain driers. Particular attention was paid to the conversion of the equations obtained for the operating conditions of the drying process into equations allowing the calculation of indexes for the standard drying conditions. The indexes obtained allow a proper comparison of dryers operating in varied atmospheric conditions, as well as humidity and temperature of the dried material.

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Characterisation of the Draw Resistance Across a Lit Cigarette

References 1. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO): International Standard ISO 6565:2011. Tobacco and tobacco products. Draw resistance of cigarettes and pressure drop of filter rods. Standard conditions and measurement; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. 2. Saidi, M.S., A. Mhaisekar, M.R. Hajaligol, and M. Subbiah.: Mathematical Modeling of a Lit-End Cigarette: Puffing Cycle and Effects of Puff Counts; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2008) 46–62. 3. Eitzinger, B. and S

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Improved Method for the Determination of Tobacco-specific Nitrosamines (TSNA) in Tobacco Smoke

. Publ. No. 45 (1983) 69-83. 12. Data received from Forschungsgesellschaft Rauchen und Gesundheit, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. 13. DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V,: Unter-suchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen — Kli-mate zum Konditionieren und Prufen; DIN 10244, December 1977. 14. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Cigarettes — Routine analytical cigarette-smoking machine — Definitions and standard conditions; ISO 3308, December 1986

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Suggestion for the Definition of Pressure Drop – Vorschlag für die Definition des Zugwiderstandes

Abstract A new suggestion for the definition of pressure drop is submitted which was accepted by the ISO/TC126-SC1 committee and Coresta Technology Study Group. The various standard conditions under which the pressure drop is to be measured are substantiated individually. The suggestion is based on a thorough study of the literature (state 1976), which is cited, with sources. This report was published in English and French in: Coresta Information Bulletin 1977-1, 17-33.

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Features of application of the Penman–Monteith method for conditions of a drip irrigation of the steppe of Ukraine (on example of grain corn)

Abstract

In the article presented the features of application and adaptation of the calculation method for determination of evapotranspiration Penman–Monteith. With the purpose of effective use of this method in the practice of a drip irrigation in the steppe zone of Ukraine, on the base of the field’s experiments results were conducted correlation of Kc with a taking into account deviations from standard conditions (on the example of grain corn).

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Material Balance Studies on Cigarettes Containing 3-Phenyl-5-methyl-1,2,4oxadiazole

Abstract

Material balance studies were performed on 85 mm machine-made cigarettes containing 1.5 % unlabelled PMO [3-phenyl-5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole], which were smoked under standard conditions to a 23 mm butt length. Using standard analytical techniques, relative distributions of PMO of approximately 28 % for mainstream, 22 % for sidestream, and 27 % for butt were obtained, with an overall recovery of unchanged PMO of 75-80 %. Radiocarbon labeled PMO [5-14C] cigarettes were prepared manually (70 mm, 2 % PMO) and smoked under standard conditions to a 20 mm butt length. Four smoking runs gave statistically valid data accounting for 95.99 ± 0.58 % of the original label. Measurements of the radioactivity were made by liquid scintillation counting of the various fractions. The mainstream smoke passing through a Cambridge filter pad contained less than one percent of the label as carbon dioxide, and no volatile organic compounds. The PMO undergoing decomposition gave rise to products found almost entirely in the sidestream.

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Measuring Pressure Drop Under Non Ideal Conditions

References 1. ISO 6565:2002: Tobacco and tobacco products – Draw resistance of cigarettes and pressure drop of filter rods – Standard conditions and measurement; International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002. 2. Colard, S., W. Trinkies, G. Cholet, B. Camm, M. Austin, and R. Gualandris: Compensation for ambient conditions effects on multi-capillary pressure drop standards calibration; Presented at Coresta Joint Smoke Science and Product Technology Group Meeting, Paper No. ST03

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„Z”-scores of anthropometric and motor parameters of girls in aerobic gymnastics

Abstract

This study presents the evaluation of chosen anthropometric and motor parameters in group of female junior competitors throughout the course of 2-year preparation of aerobic gymnastics by means of Z-scores. The observed group consisted of 12 girls (average age at the beginning of observance 14.08 ± 1.19 years). Evaluation of anthropometric (body height, body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat, acting body weight) and motor parameters (sit-ups in 30 seconds and 60 seconds, pull-ups to bar, modified push-ups, standing long jump, backwards tandem walking, shuttle run 4×10 m, Jacík’s test) was carried out in standard conditions in nine girls at 3-month intervals. It has been confirmed that female probands with higher Z-score of motor parameters together with lower Z-score of anthropometric parameters achieved higher sport performance during the 2-year observance at competitions, with an exception of one such proband.

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Assessment of the Effect of the Pre-cast Beams IG Axial Spacing on the Effort Bridge Span

Abstract

In designing of reinforced concrete bridges are often used pre-cast of pre-tensioned or post-tensioned prestressed members. In professional practice, when designing bridge span pre-cast of pre-tensioned prestressed beams IG type, different axial beams spacing’s are used and they are joined by a reinforced concrete slab. The paper presents a comparative analysis of an influence of the axial spacing of IG type beams in the cross-section of the bridge, on the bridge span effort, using standards PN-85/S-10042 and PN-EN 1992-2:2010. The optimal axial spacing of pre-cast IG type beams is presented, while maintaining the standard conditions of ULS (Ultimate Limit State). Such a solution has a positive impact on the costs of the entire project, significantly lowering the global investment cost.

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Optimization of chemical aids in the process of deinking sludge thickening

Optimization of chemical aids in the process of deinking sludge thickening

The authors have analyzed a modern technological line of the latest chemicals for the recovered paper processing and de-inking in terms of reducing the amount of wastes arising during the production. The authors have also investigated the effectiveness of selected chemical aids (coagulants and flocculants) supporting the process of sludge dewatering. 12 different types of flocculants were tested. The best chemical agent was selected as well as its optimal dosage. The highest dynamics of sludge dewatering improvement (expressed by the dewatering time under standard conditions) was observed with the ECR3 agent dosage of 6 - 6.5 kg per tonne of the absolutely dry sludge. Long-term analyses of the tested line have proved that the retention aid and its dosage were selected correctly.

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