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BALTIC JOURNAL OF LAW & POLITICS A Journal of Vytautas Magnus University VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1 (2015) ISSN 2029-0454 Cit.: Baltic Journal of Law & Politics 8:1 (2015): 195-216 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bjlp DOI: 10.1515/bjlp-2015-0016 BOOK REVIEWS: (1) SQUATTING IN EUROPE: RADICAL SPACES, URBAN STRUGGLES; (2) SECURITIZATION OF PROPERTY SQUATTING IN EUROPE; (3) BARCELONAN OKUPAS: SQUATTER POWER!; AND (4) THE SQUATTERS’ MOVEMENT IN EUROPE. COMMONS AND AUTONOMY AS ALTERNATIVES TO CAPITALISM Arnoldas Stramskas Doctoral Student

Introduction The parallel back squat is commonly utilized to increase strength of the lower extremities and to improve athletic performance ( Cormie et al., 2010 ; Weber et al., 2008 ; Wisloff et al., 2004 ). Still, there are many individuals who cannot perform the back squat due to weakness of the core muscles, previous low back injury, an inability to adequately use or load the upper extremities or poor technique. A possible alternative lower extremity exercise is the belt squat. Unlike a back squat, the belt squat places the load at the pelvis, bypassing the

References Fry, C. A., Smith C. & Schilling B. K. (2003). Effect of knee position on hip and knee torques during the barbell squat. J. Strength Cond. Res. 17(4), 629-633. Kritz, M., Cronin J. & Hume P. (2009). The bodyweight squat, a movement screen for the squat pattern. Strength Cond. J. 31(1), 76-85. Rippetoe, M. (2001). Let's learn how to coach the squat. Strength Cond. J. 23(3), 11-12. Abelbeck, K. G. (2002). Biomechanical model and evaluation of linear motion squat type exercise. J. Strength Cond. Res. 16, 516-524. Bell, D. R., Padua D. A. & Clark M

, Orlando Blumenshine R. J., 1988, An Experimental Model of the Timing of Hominid and Carnivore Influence on Archaeological Bone Assemblages , J. Archaeol. Sci. , 15 , 483-502 Brain C. K., 1981, The hunters or the hunted? - An introduction to African Cave Taphonomy , University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London Boulle E.-L., 2001 a , Evolution of two human skeletal markers of the squatting position: A diachronic study from antiquity to the modern age , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol , 115 , 50-56 Boulle E.-L., 2001 b , Osteological features associated with ankle

injuries, whilst a ratio closer to 1 indicates a higher activation of the hamstring in supporting the ACL to resist anterior tibia translations and stabilising the knee. Furthermore, unbalanced medial to lateral muscle activations have been associated with increased knee valgus in the frontal plane ( Myer et al., 2005 ). Due to the synergistic muscle actions involving a coordinated contraction of hamstring and quadriceps, several squat exercises using different levels of stability (a double or single leg squat on stable or unstable surfaces) have been proposed to enhance

. Arthritis Rheum, 2004; 50(12): 3897-3903 Dionisio VC, Almeida GL, Duarte M, Hirata RP. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG patterns during downward squatting. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2008; 18(1): 134-143 Earl JE, Schmitz RJ, Arnold BL. Activation of the VMO and VL during dynamic mini-squat exercises with and without isometric hip adduction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2001; 11(6): 381-386 Escamilla RF. Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2001; 33(1): 127-141 Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, Barrentine SW, Wilk KE, Andrews JR. Biomechanics of

, Dweyer MK, Mattacola CG, Lattermann C, Uhl TL, Keon JM. Hip-muscle activation during the lunge, single-leg squat, and step-up-and-over exercises. J Sport Rehabil , 2009; 18: 91-103. Carneiro AAO, Vilela GR, Araujo DB, Baffa O. MRI relaxometry: methods and applications. Braz J Phys , 2006; 36(1 Suppl A): 9-15. Cerny K. Vastus medialis oblique / vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios for selected exercises in persons with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Phys Ther , 1995; 75: 672-83. Chandler TJ, Wilson GD, Stone MH. The effect of the squat exercise on knee

Res, 2008; 22: 88-94 Hales ME, Johnson, BF, Johnson JT. Kinematic analysis of the powerlifting style squat and the conventional deadlift during competition: is there a cross-over effect between lifts? J Strength & Cond Res, 2009; 29: 2574-2580 Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. J Electr & Kin, 2000; 10: 361-374 Lander JE, Bates BT, Swahill JA, Hamill J. A comparison between free-weight and isokinetic bench pressing. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1985; 17: 344-353 Madsen N

. Reference values for extremity muscle strength obtained by hand-held dynamometry from adults aged 20 to 79 years. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1997; 78: 26-32 Butler RJ, Plisky PJ, Southers C, Scoma C, Kiesel KB. Biomechanical analysis of the different classifications of the functional movement screen deep squat test. Sports Biomech, 2010; 9: 270-279 Chiaia TA, Maschi RA, Stuhr RM, Rogers JR, Sheridan MA, Callahan LR, Hannafin JA. A musculoskeletal profile of elite female soccer players. HSS J, 2009; 5: 186-195 Cook G, Burton L, Kiesel K, Rose G, Bryant M. Movement: Functional

Introduction The barbell back squat is arguably the most commonly performed lower body exercise in strength and conditioning settings. With the barbell placed along the back of the shoulders, across the upper trapezius musculature, it is performed by simultaneously flexing the knees, hips and ankles to reach a specific depth (typically the thighs parallel to the floor), followed by extending the hips, knees and ankles to return to a standing position. When using a challenging load, the back squat can effectively train the majority of the body ( Glassbrook et al